Organic chemistry

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  • Organic Chemistry
    • Crude oil
      • Mostly made of hydrocarbons a compound that contains hydrogen and carbon only.
      • Finite resource,  It is the remains of organisms that lived and died millions of years ago - mainly plankton which was buried in mud.
      • Fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, heavy fuel oil and liquefied petroleum gases come from crude oil.
      • Hydrocarbons
        • Cracking
          • Large hydrocarbons can be broken down into smaller more useful molecules
          • Steam cracking
            • Heating a mixture of hydrocarbon vapours and steam to a very high temperature
          • Catalytic cracking
            • Passing hydrocarbon vapours over a hot catalyst
          • Produces unsaturated hydrocarbons called alkenes
            • Alkenes
              • Form a double carbon covalent bond in their molecules
              • Reacts with orange bromine water turning it colourless
              • Used to produce polymers
      • Fractional distillation
        • Crude oil is separated this way because the different hydrocarbons have different boiling points.
        • Properties of the fraction depend on the size of the hydrocarbon molecules in it.
        • The hydrocarbons condense to liquids when they reach their boiling point.
        • Smaller hydrocarbons
          • Low boiling point
          • Low viscosity
          • Hight flammability
        • Larger hydrocarbons
          • High  boiling points
          • High viscosity
          • Low flammability
    • Combustion
      • complete combustion
        • Fuel+oxygen-->carbon dioxide+water
        • Fuel burns with oxygen
      • Gas tests for the products of combustion
        • Carbon dioxide; turns limewater cloudy
        • Water; turns blue combat chlorine paper pink
      • incomplete combustion
        • without oxygen
        • Produces carbon monoxide


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