Chemistry C1

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  • Created by: wafflypig
  • Created on: 12-03-16 18:30
Describe Phase 1 of Earth's atmosphere
Any atmosphere boiled away because of the molten surface, eventually it cooled down a bit but volcanoes continued erupting leaking water vapour and CO2. Atmosphere was mostly CO2 with little O2. Oceans then formed as water vapour condensed
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Describe phase 2 of Earth's Atmoshpere
Lots of CO2 dissolved in the oceans. Marine organisms then developed and took in more CO2. Green plants then evolved and photosynthesised.
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Describe phase 3 of Earth's atmosphere
The build up of O2 killed some organisms. O2 created the ozone layer which blocked out some harmful rays from the sun. Complex organisms evolved. Very little CO2
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Percentages in today's atmosphere?
Oxygen = 21%, Nitrogen = 78%, Carbon Dioxide = 0.04%, Argon = 1%
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How are humans still changing the atmosphere
Burnign fossil fuels, deforestation and livestock farming
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How are volcanoes changing the atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide is released
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How can we know about old atmospheres?
Antarctic ice cores trap air in bubbles
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How can the percentage of oxygen be proved using a practical?
Heat copper between two syringes and pass air over it. 21% will have reacted with the copper to form CuO so you will 79% of what you started with left.
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How does sedimentary rock form?
Layers of sediment under lakes or seas are put under lots of pressure for millions of years. This squeezes all the water out
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Give 2 examples of sedimentary rock
Limestone and chalk
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How are metamorphic rocks formed?
When heat and pressure act on sedimentary rocks for long periods of time.
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How does igneous rock form?
Cooled magma from a volcano.
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What is extrusive rock?
An igneous rock cooled outside the volcano = small crystals
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What are some uses of limestone?
Make cement, make concrete, make glass and road surfacing
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What are the disadvantages of quarrying limestone?
Unsightly on the landscape, habitat destruction, noise and dust polluction
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What is intrusive rock?
Igneous rock cooled inside the volcano. = big crystals
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Give an example of extrusive rock
Basalt
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Give an example of intrusive rock
Granite
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Benefits of quarrying limestone?
Provides houses/roads, neutralises acidic soil, neutralise SO2 in power stations, provide jobs
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The total mass of a sealed reaction is...
Unchanged. Atoms are not lost or made in a chemical reaction
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Define thermal decomposition
The breaking down a of a substance using heat
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What is limestone?
Calcium carbonate CaCO3
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What does the thermal decomposition of limestone produce?
Calcium oxide CaO and Carbon dioxide CO2
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What does the thermal decomposition of carbonates produce?
Carbon Dioxide
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Calcium Oxide + Water .....
Calcium hydroxide
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What is a use of calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2?
It can neutralise acidic soil. It can be dissolved in water to produce limewater
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How do you test for carbon dioxide?
Pump the gas through limewater. Milky = CO2 present
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What are the state symbols?
S - Solid, Aq - Aqueos, L - Liquid, G - Gaseous
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Acid + Base ....
Salt + Water
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What is the hazard symbol for harmful?
Xh
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What is the hazard symbol for irritant?
Xi
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What can the salts from a neatralisation reaction be used for?
Fertilisers and fireworks
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What acid is in the stomach?
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
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What is indigestion caused by?
Too much hydrochloric acid in the stomach
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What is an alkali?
A base that dissolves in water
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What does a reading of pH 2 mean?
Acidic (red)
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What does a reading of pH 12 mean?
Alkali (purple)
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How can you test how well an indigestion tablet works?
Test how much acid it can neutralise by gradually adding acid from a burette into a flask containing indigestion tablet, water and indicator (Titration).
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Often, what are metal oxides and hydroxides?
Bases
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Acid + metal hydroxide ...
salt + water
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Acid + metal oxide ....
Salt + water
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Acid + metal carbonate .....
Salt + water + carbon dioxide
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Define electrolysis ....
Splitting up of a substance with electricity
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How can you test for hydrogen?
Squeaky pop test
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How can you test for chlorine?
Bleaches damp litmus paper white.
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How can you test for oxygen?
Relights a glowing splint if present
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What charge does the cathode have?
Negative
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What is an electrolyte?
The liquid that contains the compound that will be broken down by electolysis
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What type of current does electrolysis need?
DC
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Give 3 uses of chlorine
Treat water supplies, make PVC and make bleach
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What does the electrolysis of water produce?
Hydrogen and oxygen
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Define metal ore
A compound containing metal that is economically worthwhile to extract from the ground
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What is an oxidation reaction?
The gain of oxygen E.g. 2Mg+O2->2MgO
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What is a reduction reaction?
The loss of oxygen. E.g. 2CuO+C->2Cu+CO2
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Name 2 metals above carbon in the reactivity series
Potassium, lithium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium
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Name 2 metals below carbon in the reactivity series
Zinc, iron, gold, iron, tin, lead
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How can you extract metals more reactive than carbon from their ores?
Electrolysis
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How can you extract metals less reactive carbon than carbon from their ores?
Heating with carbon
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Do highly reactive or less reactive ores form more stable ores?
More reactive, meaning they are more difficult to extract
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Why should aluminium be recycled?
Expensive for electrolysis, landfill issues.
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What is formed in an oxidation reaction?
Oxides
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How is aluminium extracted from its ore?
By electrolysis. The ore of Al is melted to become the electrolyte and the Al sinks to the bottom
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What is the ore of aluminum called
Bauxite/Aluminum Oxide Al2O3
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Give 3 properties of metals
Malleable, conduct electricity and heat, strong
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Why is copper good at being used in plumbing?
Low in reactivity series. Does not react with water
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Give a use of gold
Jewelry, it is malleable and shiny. Tooth fillings, wont react with anything.
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Give a use of aluminium
Structural uses. E.g building aircraft fuselage
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Why does corrosion happen?
An oxidation reaction tales place
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Where in the reactivity series is corrosion more likely to happen?
Higher/above carbon
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What is rust?
Iron (III) oxide
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Which is more likely to corrode, potassium or lead?
Potassium, it's much more reactive
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What is steel?
An alloy of iron that has added carbon atoms
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Why is pure iron too bendy for most uses?
The atoms are regularly arranged so they slide over one another
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Why are alloys harder than pure metals?
They have different sized atoms, disrupting the regular layers so they can't slide over each other as easily
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What is a SMArt alloy?
Shape Memory Alloys. They remember their shape before being heated so they go back to the same shape after heating
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What can SMArt alloys be used for?
Glasses frames and stents (fake blood vessels)
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What can low carbon steel be used for?
Car bodies (it's more malleable)
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What can high carbon steel be used for?
Blades for cutting out tools
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What is stainless steel?
It also has chromium added
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What can stainless steel be used for?
Cutlery
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Give 4 reasons why it's important to recycle metals
Uses less resources, uses less energy, uses less money, makes less rubbish
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Give a disadvantage of recycling
Costs local councils a lot in collection and sorting
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms
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What is fractional distillation?
Splitting up of a substance with heat in a column
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What can be fractionally distilled to produce bitumen, kerosene and petrol?
Crude oil
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of different sized hydrocarbons, can be millions of years old
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What thing increases as you move up the fraction distillation column?
Flammability
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What 3 things decrease as you move up the fractional distillation column?
Viscosity and size of the hydrogen carbon molecules, temperature
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What comes out of the bottom of the column when crude oil is fractionally distilled?
Bitumen
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What comes out the top of the fractional distillation column?
Gases (for cooking etc)
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What comes out the middle of the fractional distillation column?
Kerosene (jet fuel)
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What is a polymer?
A long chain of hydrocarbons
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What is a monomer?
A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
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What is cracking?
Making polymers shorter
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How can you test for carbon dioxide?
Turns limewater a milky colour
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What is complete combustion?
When all of the hydrocarbons react fully in an abundance of oxygen
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Is complete combustion safe?
Yes
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In complete combustion... hydrocarbon+oxygen->
carbon dioxide+water
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What is the chemical formula for methane?
CH4
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When does incomplete combustion happen?
When there is not enough oxygen
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What is carbon monoxide
A colourless, odourless, and toxic gas
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In incomplete combustion... hydrocarbon+oxygen->
carbon+carbon monoxide+carbon dioxide+water
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What 4 things make a good fuel?
Easy to ignite, releases lots of energy, not much ash/smoke, can be easily stored and transported
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Why is incomplete combustion dangerous?
It produces carbon monoxide and takes oxygen away
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How colour is the flame of incomplete combustion?
Yellow with lots of smoke and ash
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What does sulfur dioxide cause?
Acid rain
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How can acid rain be prevented?
Power stations have acid gas scrubbers, cars have catalytic converters on exhausts and reduce use of fossil fues
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Name a greenhouse gas
Carbon dioxide
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What is the greenhouse effect?
When heat from the sun gets trapped under the greenhouse gasses in Earth's atmosphere
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Give 2 ways humans are affecting CO2 levels
Deforestation and burning fossil fuels
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How can CO2 levels be released?
Iron seeding and converting CO2 into hydrocarbons
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What is iron seeding?
Iron promotes the growth of phytoplankton which photosynthesise (absorb CO2 and release O2) when iron is added to oceans.
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What is a disadvantage of iron seeding?
Toxic plankton may grow
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Give two biofuels
Biogas and ethanol
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How is biogas made?
By microorganisms when they decompose dead plants.
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What are the advantages of biogas?
Renewable, the plants photosynthesised when alive, cheap raw materials
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What is ethanol?
Alcohol
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How can ethanol be produced?
By decomposing sugar beet and using yeast to ferment sugars
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In which country is ethanol already being widely used in cars?
Brazil
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What are the disadvantages of ethanol?
Uses land to grow the crops, less land to grow food
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What are the advantages of ethanol?
Less crude oil used, the crops photosynthesised whilst growing
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What is a fuel cell?
An electrical cell that's supplied with a fuel and oxygen and uses the energy produced from the reaction between them to generate electricty
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What are the advantages of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells?
No turbines/generators needed, less energy wasted in losses, no moving parts, doesn't produce pollutants
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Why is it likely that fuel cells will never be widely used?
Might explode, takes up lots of space, still needs electrolysis to get the raw materials
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What is the really, really simple formula for calculating the mass of fuel burned?
Mass of fuel burned = initial mass of fuel and burner - final mass of fuel and burner
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What is a calorimetric experiment?
Heating water by burning a fuel
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What is a calorimeter?
A copper cup
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What bonds do alkanes have?
Single covalent
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What bonds do alkEnes have?
Double covalent
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Give 2 examples of an alkane
MethANE, ethANE, propANE
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What colour is normal bromine water?
Brown
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What are saturated hydrocarbons?
Have no spare bonds. All alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons
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What do alkanes do to bromine water's colour?
Nothing, it stays brown
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What do alkenes do to bromine water's colour?
Turn it colourless
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Why won't alkanes form polymers?
They are saturated so have no spare bonds to make
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Why do alkenes turn bromine water colourless?
They form bonds with the bromine because they are not saturated
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How do alkenes form polymers?
Opening up their double bonds to "hold hands" in a long chain
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Give an example of an alkene...
EthENE, propENE
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Meth means 1 carbon atom, eth means 2 carbon atoms, prop means...
3 carbon atoms
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Define cracking
Splitting up long hydrocarbon chains
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Cracking is a form of which decomposition?
Thermal decomposition
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What are the 2 conditions for cracking?
Heat and a catalyst
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What is cracking used for?
To make viscous substances more useful. E.g. turn diesel into paraffin, petrol and ethene. The ethene can then be used to make plastics
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What can ethene be used for?
To make plastics
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What is a good catalyst in the cracking of paraffin in a lab?
Porcelain chips
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How many carbon atoms does octane have?
8
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What is polymeristation?
Making of polymers by joining together lots of short monomers
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Why are some plastics hard to get rid of?
The are non-biodegradable (don't rot) and youcan't burn them (releases toxic gases)
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What can be done to increase the sustainability of using plastics?
Recycle them, use plastics that have starch in them or decompose in sunlight
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Why is adding starch to plastics a good idea?
Microorganisms break it down in the soil so it's broken down into tiny pieces, increasing surface area
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What is PVC short for?
Polychloroethene
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When alkenes become polymers, what is added to the beginning of their names?
Poly. E.g ethene becomes polyethene (widely known as polythene)
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What is a base?
Any alkali substance, regardless of its solubility
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe phase 2 of Earth's Atmoshpere

Back

Lots of CO2 dissolved in the oceans. Marine organisms then developed and took in more CO2. Green plants then evolved and photosynthesised.

Card 3

Front

Describe phase 3 of Earth's atmosphere

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Percentages in today's atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are humans still changing the atmosphere

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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