Chemistry C1

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What are fossil fuels?
Formed naturally over milions of years & are finite
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms
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What is meant by cracking?
Breaking down large alkane molecules into smaller, more useful alkane & alkene molecules
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In hydrocarbons there are...?
Strong covelant bonds & weak intermolecular forces
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Complete combustion word equation
methane + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water
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Incomplete combustion word equation
methane + oxygen --> carbon monoxide + water
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What are the percentages of gas in the air today?
78% nitrogen // 21% oxygen // 1% other gases
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What does sulfur dioxide cause?
Acid rain (kills plants & aquatic life and erodes stonework)
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Are alkenes saturated or unsaturated?
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How can you test for alkenes?
Add bromine water. Alkenes decolourise bromine water & alKANES have no effect on it
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What is Gore-Tex?
A breathable material made from nylon. It allows sweat to escape whilst preventing rain from getting in.
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What are emulsifiers used for?
To get oil and water to mix (hydrophilic head & hydrophobic tail)
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4 properties of Nylon
lightweight / tough / waterproof / blocks UV
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What are polymers?
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What is the purpose of antioxidants? (food additives)
They stop food reacting with atmospheric oxygen & increase shelf life
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Why won't nail varnish dissolve in water?
The attraction between water molecules is stronger than attraction between water molecules and nail varnish molecules
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A perfume must smell nice, and must...?
evaporate easily / not react with water / not dissolve in water / nontoxic / non-irritant
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Pro & cons of animal testing
Pro: no humans harmed // Cons: it's cruel & not same body chemisty
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How do phosphorescent pigments glow?
They absorb & store energy and then release it as light when dark
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What can thermochromic pigments be used for?
mood rings / bath toys / cutlery / to coat kettles to indicate temperature
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Describe the 2 stages of how an oil-based paint dries
1) solvent evaporates 2) oil-binding medium reacts with o2 in air as it dries to form a hard layer
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What is a binding medium?
oil that sticks pigment to surface
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What's a solvent?
thins the thick binding medium & makes it easier to coat surface
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Gives paint its colour
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a hydrocarbon?


A molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms

Card 3


What is meant by cracking?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


In hydrocarbons there are...?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Complete combustion word equation


Preview of the front of card 5
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