Chemistry

The earths early atmosphere
Formed by volcanoes, mostly co2, small amounts of ammonia, hydrogen, water vapour and methane.
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Todays atmosphere
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, 1% argon.
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CO2 increased by:
photosynthesis, dissolving in oceans, sedimentary rocks.
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Oxygen increased by:
photosynthesis - cyanobacteria.
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The amounts of gases in the atmosphere are changing due to:
volcanoes, farming, deforestation, burning fossil fuels.
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Thermal composition of calcium carbonate:
calcium carbonate --> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide.
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Calcium oxide + water -->
calcium hydroxide - fizzing/bubbling.
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Uses of CaCO3
neutralises soil and acidic gases from power stations preventing acid rain.
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Intrusive igneous rocks:
magma - rock cooled slowly so large crystals e.g. granite - more dense and heat resistant.
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Extrusive igneous rocks:
lava - rock has cooled quickly so small crystals e.g. basalt.
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Sedimentary rock:
layers build up and pressure compacts layers of sediment - fossils are common e.g. limestone.
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Metamorphic rocks:
heat and pressure e.g. marble.
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Advantages of quarrying limestone:
jobs, building materials - cement, medicine, glass, neutralises acidic soils, jobs
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Disadvantages of quarrying limestone:
permanently changes landscape, noisy and dusty, destroys habitats, transportation means noise and pollution.
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Testing for oxygen:
relights glowing splint.
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Testing for hydrogen:
squeaky pop test
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Testing for carbon dioxide:
turns limewater milky/cloudy
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Testing for chlorine:
bleaches litmus paper white
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Acids have a pH of:
0-6
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Alkalies have a pH of:
8-14
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Indigestion remedies:
contain substances that neutralise excess stomach acid e.g. baking powder or bicarbonate of soda
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Acid + base -->
salt + water
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Acid + metal hydroxide -->
salt + water
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Acid + metal carbonate -->
salt + water + carbon dioxide
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Uses of chlorine:
treating water, manufacturing of bleach, manufacturing of PVC as it makes it more heat resistant.
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Dangers of chlorine:
toxic gas, gas leaks can kill lots of people, burst gas pipes leading to gas leaks, explosions due to an excess of pressure
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Aluminium oxide -->
aluminium + oxygen
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Why do we recycle metals:
less resources, less money, less rubbish, less energy
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Why are pure metals malleable:
layers can slide as particles are all the same size
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What are alloys:
mixture of metals that are harder and stronger than the original
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Why are alloys stronger:
the layers don't slide as the particles are different sizes
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What are smart alloys:
different forms at different temperatures e.g nitinol.
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Examples of shape memory alloys:
medical stents and glasses
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A metal ore is:
A mixture of minerals or a mineral from which it is economically viable to extract some metal.
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What do most metals exist as:
metal oxides
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What metals are separated from their ores using electrolysis:
potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and aluminium
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What metals are separated from their ores using heating with carbon:
zinc, iron, tin, lead, copper
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Which metals are unreactive:
gold, silver and platinum
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Oxidation is:
a gain of oxygen
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Reduction is:
a loss of oxygen
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At 350 degrees of fractional distillation it is:
highest boiling point, more viscous, less flammable, less volatile
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What is liquid petroleum used for:
gas canisters
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What is petrol used for:
cars
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What is paraffin used for:
planes
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What is diesel used for:
lorries/trains
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What is fuel oil used for:
heating
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What is bitumen used for:
roads
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What are alkanes:
fully saturated hydrocarbons that are unreactive
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What are alkenes:
unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond and so reactive
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Adding bromine water to an alkane:
stays orange as it does not react
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Adding bromine water to an alkene:
it will turn colourless
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What is complete combustion:
where there is plenty of oxygen
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In complete combustion, hydrocarbons burn to produce:
carbon dioxide and water
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What incomplete combustion:
where there isn't enough oxygen
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In incomplete combustion, hydrocarbons burn to produce what:
carbon monoxide and water
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How would you describe carbon monoxide:
colourless and does irreversible damage by binding red blood cells
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What are the effects of carbon monoxide:
headaches, nausea, coma and death
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What is acid rain caused by:
pollutants from fossil fuels, such as sulphur dioxide
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What are the dangers of acidic rain:
damages carbonate rocks and increases the acidity of rivers/lakes
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What is the definition of cracking:
breaking down longer hydrocarbons into more desirable and useful shorter hydrocarbons
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What is the definition of polymerisation:
joining lots of monomers to make a long chained polymer
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How do we dispose of polymers:
burning them, putting them in landfill sites, reusing them and recycling them.
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Why is burning polymers a bad thing:
the air pollution is toxic
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Why is putting polymers in landfill sites a bad thing:
they are non-biodegradable
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Why is recycling polymers expensive:
they need to be sorted which takes time
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What is bioethanol:
alcohol made from sugar beet and sugar cane
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Advantages of bioethanol:
renewable, carbon neutral, can replace fossil fuels
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What does carbon neutral mean:
it takes in as much carbon dioxide by photosynthesis than it releases when it is burnt
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Disadvantages of bioethanol:
not carbon neutral in transport and manufacturing considered, few stations and cars have biofuel, limited land available for growing
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What do hydrogen fuel cells do:
fuel and oxygen to generate electricity
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Todays atmosphere

Back

78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, 1% argon.

Card 3

Front

CO2 increased by:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Oxygen increased by:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The amounts of gases in the atmosphere are changing due to:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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