chemistry

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Ions are atoms with extra electrons or missing electrons. When you are missing an electron or two, you have a positive charge
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Metal atoms lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest energy level and become positively charged ions.
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Non-metal atoms gain an electron, or electrons, from another atom to become negatively charged ions.
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sodium + chlorine → sodium chloride magnesium + oxygen → magnesium oxide calcium + chlorine → calcium chloride
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A covalent bond forms when two non-metal atoms share a pair of electrons. The electrons involved are in the outer shells of the atoms. An atom that shares one or more of its electrons will complete its outer shell.
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Group 4 Carbon 8 - 4 = 4 Group 5 Nitrogen 8 - 5 = 3 Group 6 Oxygen 8 - 6 = 2 Group 7 Chlorine 8 - 7 = 1
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Simple molecules contain only a few atoms held together by covalent bonds. An example is carbon dioxide (CO2), the molecules of which contain one atom of carbon bonded with two atoms of oxygen.
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Properties of simple molecular substances Low melting and boiling points - this is because little energy is needed to break the weak intermolecular forces. Do not conduct electricity - this is because they do not have any free electrons or an overal
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Giant covalent structures contain very many atoms, each joined to adjacent atoms by covalent bonds. The atoms are usually arranged into giant regular lattices - extremely strong structures because of the many bonds involved.
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Very high melting points – this is because a lot of strong covalent bonds must be broken. Graphite, for example, has a melting point of more than 3,600°C. Variable electrical conductivity - diamond does not conduct electricity, whereas graphite conta
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the horizontal rows are called periods the vertical columns are called groups
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elements in the same group are similar to each other the metals are on the left and the non-metals are on the right (hydrogen is a non-metal but is often put in the middle)
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the main groups are numbered from 1 to 7 going from left to right, and the last group on the right is Group 0 the block in between Group 2 and Group 3 is where the transition metals are placed there are only two elements in Period 1 (hydrogen and he
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metals high melting point good conductors of heat malleable (can be beaten into shape) shiny when cut ductile (can be pulled into wires)
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Non-metals have a variety of properties, but very few are good conductors of electricity. Graphite (a form of carbon) is a rare example of a non-metal that conducts electricity very well.
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Metal atoms lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest energy level and become positively charged ions.

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