chemistry 3

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what does the rate of reaction do
measure how much product is formed in a fixed period of time
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what happens usually in a reaction
its fast at first and slows down as reactants are used up
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when is g/s g/min used
are used when measuring mass of product formed. g/s is usually used for faster reactions and g/min for slower reactions
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when is cm3/s cm3/min used
used when measuring volume of gas produced. cm3/s is used for faster and cm3/min for slower reactions
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how can the rate of reaction be worked out
gradient of the graph
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what is the limiting reactant
is the reactant not in excess that gets used up by the end of the reaction
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what is the link between the limiting recatant and product formed
directly proportinal . if limiting doubles amount of product formed quadruples.
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when does reactions occur
when particles collide together. if reacting particles of one reactant is limited the number of collisions by particles of that reactant are limited
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what does the rate of reation depend on
number of collisions between the reacting particles, higher collsions the faster the reaction
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how can the rate of reaction be increased by
increasing concentration, temperature or pressure
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what happens when raise concentration
particles become more crowded. increased number of collisons between reacting particles
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what happens when temperture increases
particles gain more KE and move around more quickly so collisons are more sucessful and occur more faster. size of arrows indicate amount of KE it has
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what happens with increassed pressure
it forces particles closer togther incresing rate of reaction
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what must a particle have for a sucessfull collion
have enough energy
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how can you tell when a reaction is finished
horizontal line,numbers will stop chaning
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how do you compare rate of reaction
steeper line faster the reaction,larger the change faster reaction
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what does extrapolation mean
making an estimate beyond the range of results.
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what does interpolation mean
making an estimate between results in a range
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what can combustile powders do
cause an explosion
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what happens when powders react with oxygen
make large volumes of co2 and water vapour
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when you have a larger surface area what happpens
a powders reactant has a much larger surface area than the same mass of reactant in block form
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what could bigger surface area do
increase rate of reaction
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reactions occcur when
reactant particles collide with sufficent energy
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what can powders do to collsion frequency
can spread throughout a reaction mixture increasing the collions frequency
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in a block material where do collions occur
particles on the surface because the trapped on the inside so unable to react
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what does a catalyst do
changes the rate of reaction and is unchanged at the end of reaction
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how can relative atomic mass be found
on periodic table
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what does the total mass of the reactant equals
total mass of products. called conservation of mass
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why is mass conserved
becasue atoms connot be created or destroyed only rearranged into differetn compounds
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why is actual yeild less than predicted
due to loss of energy to environment
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why do industrial companies need high percentage yeild
reduce amount of reactants wasted, reduce costs
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why do comapnies want high atom ecomony
reduce production of unwanted products to conserve raw materials
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what is a bond breaking process
endothermic
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what is bond making
exothermic
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how can you tell if a reaction is endo or exo thermic
amount of energy produced
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if more energy released than needed the reaction is
exothermic
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if more energy is needed than released the reaction is
endothermic
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energy transfered by a fuel is calculated using the formula
energgy transfered=mass x SHC x temperture change
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how do you find out the energy relased by 1g of solid fuel
measure mass,pour 100g of water into sopper calorimeter,heat water with fuel,measure temp rise, repeat differnt fuels,
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how can mass of fuel burnt be measured
by measuring mass of the burner and the fuel before and after heating
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ammonia sulfiric acid is done by what process
continuous
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what is continuous process
make large quantites 24/7,done in large chemical plants,automated with minimal labour costs making cheaper,less energy to maintain
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chemicals needed in small quanties are made in what process
batch
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what are benefts of batch
fixed amouts,stored until needed,sold with sell by date,can make new batch when needed,easy to change production to differnt product
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what are dissadvnatges of continous
process inefficent and not in constant use,high costs to build plants
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disadvanatges of batch
each batch supervised so very expensive,time needed foe cleaning if product line change,inefficnet as not in conats use
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extracting a chemical frm a product involves
crshing cell walls,boiling in a solvent, ,chromatography to seperate and identify individual compounds, isolating,purifying and testing potentially usefull compounds
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what does pure compounds have
definate melting and boiling points
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what is thin layer chromatogrpahy used for
to test thepurity of a comapring the speed of movement against a known pure sample
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why is it difficult to get a new licence for a drug
tested,long term trials need to research side effects
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what are examples of allotropes
graphite, dimonds and fullerenes
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what are allotropes
differnt structures of the same elements
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what are fullerenes
carbon structures that form spheres or tubes
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what are the advantges of fullerenes
carry and deliver drug molecules around the body,trap dangreous substances in body and remove them
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what are dimonds and graphite
both giant covalent structure of carbon atoms. carbon atoms in dimond makes strong covalent bonds in differnt directions graphite-makes layers
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what are the properties of dimond
hardest naturel sustance with high melting and boilng points.
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properties of graphite
high melting/boiling points but layers can slide over each other.
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what does covalent bond do
share electrons 1carbon-4others
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physical properties of dimond
strong covalent bonds in all directions makes hard.high melting point 3350has an absence of free electrons so canot conduct electricty
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properties of grapthie
high melting point,delociled electrons-good electrical conductor,when force applied weak forces lside over eachother
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what happens usually in a reaction

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its fast at first and slows down as reactants are used up

Card 3

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when is g/s g/min used

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Card 4

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when is cm3/s cm3/min used

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how can the rate of reaction be worked out

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