Chemistry 1a

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Which element's properties are more similar to magnesium's: calcium or iron?
Calcium
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Describe the process of ionic bonding
The metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions and the non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions. The opposite charges of the ions mean that they're strongly attracted to each other, so they ionically bond
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Describe the process of covalent bonding
Each non-metal atom shares an electron with another atom - this is a covalent bond. Each atom has to make enough covalent bonds to fill up its outer shell
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What is limestone most made of?
Calcium carbonate
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What is the chemical formula of calcium carbonate?
CaCO3
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What happens when calcium carbonate is heated?
It thermally decomposes to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
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What is formed when calcium carbonate reacts with an acid?
It makes a calcium salt, carbon dioxide and water
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What is formed when you add water to calcium oxide?
Calcium hydroxide
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What is the chemical formula of calcium hydroxide?
Ca(OH)2
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What can calcium hydroxide be used for?
To neutralise acidic soil
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What is formed when carbon dioxide is added to calcium hydroxide?
Calcium carbonate and water
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Name three building materials made from limestone
Cement, mortar and concrete
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Give three disadvantages of quarrying limestone
Scars the landscape permanently, machinery makes a lot of noise, and habitats can be destroyed
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Give three uses of limestone
Building houses and roads, neutralising acidic soil and lakes, and neutralising sulphur dioxide in power station chimneys
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What is an ore?
A metal ore is a rock which contains enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting the metal from it
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What is the ore usually found as?
In many cases the ore is an oxide of the metal
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Give one example of a metal that isn't found as an oxide, and why is this?
Gold, and because it is so unreactive
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Give three ways in which a metal can be extracted from its ore
By reduction, electrolysis or displacement
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Which element is used in reduction?
Carbon
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Which elements in the reactivity series have to be extracted by electrolysis?
Metals more reactive than carbon
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Which elements in the reactivity series can be extracted by reduction?
Metals less reactive than carbon
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What type of copper is produced through reduction and why isn't it very useful?
Impure copper, it doesn't conduct electricity well so it can't be used to make electrical wiring
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How is pure copper produced?
Through electrolysis
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What is electrolysis?
The breaking down of a substance using electricity
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What are electrolytes?
They are often metal salt solutions made from the ore, or molten metal oxides
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How does a displacement reaction work?
If you put a reactive metal into a solution of a dissolved metal compound, the reactive metal will replace the less reactive metal in the compound
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Give the equation for displacing copper sulphate
Copper sulphate + iron -> iron sulphate + copper
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Describe the process of bioleaching
This uses bacteria to separate copper from copper sulphide. The bacteria get energy from the bond between the copper and sulphur, separating out the copper from the ore in the process. The leachate produces copper, which can be extracted
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Describe the process of phytomining
This involves growing plants in soil that contains copper, which eventually builds up in the leaves. The plants are then harvested, dried and burned in a furnace. The copper is then collected from the ash left in the furnace
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Give one advantage of metal extraction
It provides local people with jobs, so it brings money into the area
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Give one disadvantage of metal extraction
It permanently scars the landscape
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What are some properties of copper?
It is a good conductor of electricity, hard, strong, flexible and doesn't react with water
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What can copper be used for?
Making pipes, water tanks and electrical wires
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What are some properties of aluminium?
It is corrosion-resistant, has a low density and forms hard, strong alloys
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What can aluminium be used for?
Making an aeroplane
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What are some properties of titanium?
It has a low density, is very strong and is corrosion-resistant
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What can titanium be used for?
Making replacement hips
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Why is cast iron (iron with all impurities still in it) not very useful?
It is too brittle
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What are some properties of low carbon steel, and what can it be used for?
It is easily shaped, and can be used to make car bodies
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What are some properties of high carbon steel, and what can it be used for?
It is very hard and inflexible, and can be used to make blades for cutting tools and bridges
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What are some properties of stainless steel, and what can it be used for?
It is corrosion-resistant, and can be used to make cutlery and containers for corrosive substances
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Why are alloys harder than pure metals?
The impurities added disrupt the layers and make it harder for them to slide over each other
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What is crude oil made of?
A mixture of hydrocarbons that aren't chemically bonded together
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What are hydrocarbons used as?
Fuels
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Describe the process of fractional distillation
The fractionating column works continuously with heated crude oil piped in at the bottom. The vaporised oil rises up the column and the various fractions are constantly tapped off at the different levels where they condense
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Where do the longer chain hydrocarbons condense in the fractionating column?
At the bottom
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What are all of the hydrocarbons of crude oil called?
Fractions (they are all also alkanes)
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What are the first four alkanes called?
Methane, ethane, propane, and butane
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
C(n)H(2n+2)
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Why are alkanes saturated?
All the atoms have formed bonds with as many other atoms as they can
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The shorter the hydrocarbon chain is the .... viscous (runny) it is
Less
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The shorter the hydrocarbon chain is the .... volatile it is (more volatile = turn into a gas at a lower temperature)
More
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The shorter the hydrocarbon chain is the .... flammable (easy to ignite) it is
More
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Give two environmental impacts of using crude oil
1. Oil spills can happen 2. Burning oil contributes to global warming, global dimming and acid rain
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What causes acid rain?
Sulphur dioxide
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List three uses of crude oil and its fractions
1. Ethanol can be sued in ethanol-powered cars 2. They can be used in power stations to generate electricity 3. Crude oil also provides the raw materials for making various chemicals, including plastics
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Name three alternative fuels
Ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen gas
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Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using ethanol as an alternative fuel
Advantage: It's carbon neutral Disadvantage: It isn't widely available
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Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using biodiesel as an alternative fuel
Pro: It produces much less sulphur dioxide than diesel or petrol Con: It's expensive to make
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Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using hydrogen gas as an alternative fuel
Pro: The only bi-product is water (clean) Con: It's hard to store because it's explosive!
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the process of ionic bonding

Back

The metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions and the non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions. The opposite charges of the ions mean that they're strongly attracted to each other, so they ionically bond

Card 3

Front

Describe the process of covalent bonding

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is limestone most made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the chemical formula of calcium carbonate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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