Chemistry 1

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Where is the nucleus and what is it made of?
In the centre, protons and neutrons.
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What are electrons?
Tiny, negatively charged particles that circle the nucleus.
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What charge do atoms have? Why?
None, because protons (+) and electrons (-) are equal and balance out.
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Define the term 'element'.
A substance containing only one kind of atom.
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Periodic table: Define 'period', 'group', 'atomic number', and 'mass number'.
Row - Column - bottom left, protons/electrons - top left, protons+neutrons.
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What is the formation for electron shells?
2, 8, 8...
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How many electrons in a group 1 element's outer shell?
1
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A compound formed of a metan and a non metal is...?
An ion.
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What is a bond between two non-metals called?
A covalent bond.
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What is the limestone cycle?
CALCIUM CARBONATE thermally decomposes into CALCIUM OXIDE and CARBON DIOXIDE. CALCIUM OXIDE reacts with WATER to make CALCIUM HYDROXIDE. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE reacts with CARBON DIOXIDE to make CALCIUM CARBONATE and WATER.
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Name three disadvantages of limestone quarrying.
1) It's loud. 2) It's dusty and causes pollution. 3) Destroys habitats.
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Name three uses of limestone:
Houses, roads, dyes, paints, neutralising acid rain, provides jobs,
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How are metals extracted from ores?
Reduction (Oxygen is removed, depends on place in reactivity series.) Electrolysis (More reactive than carbon? Then they're melted down and electrolysed.)
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What is more expensive - reduction or electrolysis? Why?
Electrolysis, because it requires more energy.
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Why is copper getting more expensive?
Because copper-rich ores are in short supply.
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What is bioleaching?
Bacteria is used to extract copper from copper sulfide. The bacteria get energy from the bond between copper and sulphur, which separates the two.
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What is phytomining?
Plants are grown in soil that contains copper. The copper builds up in the leaves and can be extracted from the ash when the plants are burned.
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Why is metal extraction a bad thing?
It requires use of Fossil Fuels and creates noise and dust. Deep mine shafts can be dangerous for a long time after mining has stopped.
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Why is recycling important?
It reduces the need for fossil fuels and saves money on energy. It conserves resources and cuts down on landfill.
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Name three properties of metals:
Strong, bendy, good conductors.
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What is an alloy?
A metal with another substance added in order to strengthen it.
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What is in steel?
Iron and carbon.
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What is crude oil made of?
Hydrocarbons.
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Where is crude oil split into fractions?
A fractionating column.
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What is the heat gradient on a fractionating column?
Bottom is hotter than top.
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What are the first four alkanes?
Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane
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What is the difference between an alkane and an alkene?
Alkanes have single bonds and are saturated, while alkenes have double carbon bonds and are unsaturated.
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What is the general formula for an alkane?
C(n)H(2n+2)
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What happens when the molecules are shorter?
The hydrocarbon is more runny, has a lower boiling point, and is more flammable.
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Name three uses of hydrocarbons:
Car fuel, tar for roads, energy.
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What are polymers and what are they made from?
Long chains of monomers which are made from alkenes.
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What is the general formula for alkenes?
H(n)C(2n)
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What can polymers be used for?
Nylon, packaging, memory foam, binbags.
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True or false: Polymers are biodegradable.
FALSE
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How are oils extracted from plants?
By crushing.
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What do unsaturated oil contain?
Double bonds (C=C)
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What are the conditions necessary for hydrogenation?
A nickel catalyst, 60°C.
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What is an emulsifier?
A substance that suspends one substance in another.
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What are the properties of an emulsifier particle?
Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head.
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What was Albert Wegener's theory of Continental drift?
That millions of years ago, there was one huge continent, but it was separated over the years as plate tectonics changed.
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Why wasn't Wegener's theory accepted?
Insufficient evidence and Wegener wasn't a 'real' geologist.
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How did Earth's atmosphere evolve?
Volcanoes gave out gases and then green plants grew and produced oxygen from the carbon dioxide. The seas formed when the water vapour condensed. The build-up of oxygen in the atmosphere formed the ozone layer and blocked the sun's UV rays.
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What is the primordial soup and what was it made of?
Nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia and methane were struck by lighting to form amino acids, from which life began.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are electrons?

Back

Tiny, negatively charged particles that circle the nucleus.

Card 3

Front

What charge do atoms have? Why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define the term 'element'.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Periodic table: Define 'period', 'group', 'atomic number', and 'mass number'.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Palminder0

a metan, on card 8 means metal right?

Palminder0

the last 2 look like jokes and fake answers

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