Chemistry 1

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why are fossil fuels finite resources
becasue they are no longer being made or being made extreamly slowly
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what are fossil fuels
non renewbale resources
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what difficulties are there with crude oil
finding replacemnets and all the resources alradey extracted will be used up in future
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what is crude oil
mixture of oil, all hydrocarbons
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what is a hydrocarbon
made of of molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon ONLY
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what happens at the botton of the coulm
oil that doesnt boil sinks as a thick liquid, eg bitumen which has a high boiling point
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what happens going up the colum
other hydrocarbons with similar boiling points boil and thier gases rise up the colum .
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what happens at the top of the colum
it is cooler at the top,fractions with low boiling points exit here eg LPG
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why can crude oil be seperated
because hydrocarbons in different fractions have differnt sized molecules
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hydorcarbon force with breaking?
forces between them are intermolecular forces and broken down during boiling
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molecules in breaking?
the molecules of the liquid seperate from each other as molecules of gas
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large molecules in brekaing?
large molecules have strong forces of attractions so lots of energy is needed to break the forces between the molecules so have high boiling points eg bitumen
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small molecules in brekaing?
petrol have weka forces of attraction so are easily seperated so less energy is needed to breka these bonds. they have low boiling points
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problems with transpoting crude oil
oil spills damge birds and clean up use detergants that damage wildlife,political problems-countires can set high problems
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what is naphtha
a chemical at high demnad for use in medicen plastics and dyes.
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what is cracking
process turns alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecules.
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what does alkene have
has a double bond which makes itusefull for making polymers
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what is a benefit of cracking
helps oil manufactures match supply with demand
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buring hydrocarbon in plenty of air produces
co2 and water
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when does complete combustion occur
when a fuel is burnt in plenty of oxygen
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what is a benfit of complete combustion
more energy is realsed comapred to incomplete
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what is made from incomplete combustion
toxic gas(carbon monoxide) and soot (carbon)
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what is word equation for incomplete combustion
fuel+oxygen=carbon monoxide+water or fuel +oxygen=carbon+water
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what is balenced symbol equation for complete combustion
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what is balenced symbol equation for incomplete combustion
2CH4+302=2CO+4H20 OR CH4+O2=C+2H2O
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What experiment is shown to show complete combustion
candel beaker or water with cobalt chloride paper in for water vapor conceted to a conical flask with limewater to test for co2 and filetr pump to draw air through
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what is air amde up from
78% nitrogen 21% oxygen
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why has co2 increased
deforestation-less photosynthesis increased population-world energy demand increases
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what formed the atmosphere
gases escaping the interoir of the earth. plants too in co2 and released oxygen
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where do gases come from
the center of the earth from volcaneos in a process called degassing
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what is a theory about the atmosphere
rich in water vapour and co2. vapour condened to form ocenas and co2 dissolvedin water.nitrogen increased but being unrecative was not removed
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what is sulfur dioxide
pollutant that casues athma diffuculties. can also dissolvein water to form acid rain that damages wildlife nad limestone buildings
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what is a catalytic converter
coverts carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide
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what happenes in it?
there is a reaction between nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. the gases formed are nitrogen and co2
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what is balenced symbol equation to a catalyic converter
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Alkanes have
single covalent bonds
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alkenes have
double covalent bonds. (two shared electrons)
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what is used to test for alkene
bromine, when added alkene wil turn coulouress (decolourise) and forms a dibro compound
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what is a saturated compound
single covalent bonds eg alkanes propane are saturated no double bonds
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what is an unsaturated compound
has at least one double bond. alkenes propene have double c=c bond.
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what is additional polymerisation
process that makes alkene monomers react to give polymer. needs high pressure catalyst
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what does additional polymerisation involve
a reaction of many unsaturated monomer molecules (alkenes)to form a saturated polymer
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what is nylon
tough lightweight keeps water and UV rays out but does not let water vapour through. eg when sweat become wet
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goretex is
same as nylon but lets water vapour thorugh the membrane but not rainwater
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goretex is made from
PTFE so holes are too small to let water through but water vapour can pass through
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whatkinds of polymers are scientists developing
ones that dissolve and are biodegradable
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what are problems with polymers
disposing (landfill)buring produces toxic gases, difficult to sort when recyling
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what do plastics have
weka intermolecular forces and low melting points so can be streached easily as moleucles can slide
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what is denurturing
when molecules change shape when being cooked
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what happens to potato when cooked
starch grains swell up and spread out,cell walls rupture resuting in loss of rigid structure and soft texture produced
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what is baking powder
soduim hydrocarbonate
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what happens to baing powder when heated
decomposes to give out co2
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what is word equation of decompostion of soduim hydrocarbonate
SH=soduim carbonate+co2+water
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what is ballened symbol equation of sh
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What are emulsifers
molecules that have water loving (hydrophilic)head and fat/oil loving part (hydrophobic) tail
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alchols areact with acids to form what
ester and water
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how do you make ester
acid heated with alchol sometime,condenser used to stop gases escaping and helps cools down so can react more longer
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what are osme properties for a perfume
evaporte easily,non toxic,not recat with wtaer, not irritate skin,insoluabe in water
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what is a solution
mixture of a solvent and soulte that does not spread out
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evaportion of perfume theory
particles in liquid need suffient KE to overcome forces of attraction to other moelcules, weak attractions exsist between liquid molecules so easy to overcome
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why wont water dissolve in nail varnish
attraction between water molecules stronger than attaction between water and nail varnish and vise versa.
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what is paint
a collid where particles are mixed and dispersed with particles of liquid(binding meduim) but are not dissolved
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why wont componats of collid not seperate
particles are scatterd or disperd throught the mixture and are sufficently small
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why do piants dry
applied in thin layer and solvent evaporates
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what are emulsion paints
water based paints that dry when solvent evaportaes
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why do oil paints dry
solvent evaporates, oil is oxidised by atmospheric oxygen
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what do thermochromic pigments do
change colour at different tempertures
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why do phosphorescent pigmnets glow in dark
absorb/store energy, release it over period of time
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Card 2


what are fossil fuels


non renewbale resources

Card 3


what difficulties are there with crude oil


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Card 4


what is crude oil


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Card 5


what is a hydrocarbon


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