Chem Definitions

Acid
A species which is a proton donor.
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Activation Energy
The minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction by breaking the bonds.
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Alkali
A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions, OH-(aq) ions.
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Anhydrous
Without water.
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Atomic Orbital
A region within an ion that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins.
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Atomic (Proton) Number
The number of protons in an atoms nucleus.
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Avogadro Constant
The number of atoms per mole of the Carbon-12 isotope (6.02x10²³ mol¯¹)
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Base
A species which is a proton acceptor.
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Covalent Bond
A bond formed by a sharing pair of electrons.
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Dative Covalent Bond
A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only.
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Electronegativity
A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
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Electron Shielding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduced the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on outer-shell electrons.
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Empirical Formula
The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
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Hydrated
Containing water.
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Hydrogen Bond
A strong Dipole-Dipole attraction between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom (O-Hᵟ⁺ or N-Hᵟ⁺) on one molecule of a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom (H-O: ᵟ¯ or H-N: ᵟ¯) on a different molecule.
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Intermolecular Force
An attractive force between neighbouring molecules. Intermolecular forces can be Van Der Waal’s forces (induced dipole-dipole forces), permanent dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonds.
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Ionic Bond
The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
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Ionisation Energy
The amount of energy needed to remove one mole of atoms from one mole of atom is gaseous state to form one mole of unipositve ions understandard conditions. 1atm, 298K and 1 mol dm-3.
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Mass Number
The number of particles (Protons and Neutrons) inside the nucleus.
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Metallic Bond
The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
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Molar Mass
The mass per mole of a substance.
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Molar Volume
The volume per mole of a gas. The unit of molar volume are dm³ mol¯¹. At room temperature and pressure the molar volume is approximately 24.0 dm³ mol¯¹.
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Mole
The amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are Carbon atoms in exactly 12g of Carbon-12
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Molar Formula
The number of atoms in each element in a molecule.
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons, or a increase in oxidation number.
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Periodicity
A regular periodic variation of properties of elements with atomic number and position in the Periodic Table.
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Permanent Dipole
A small charge difference across a bond resulting from a difference in electronegativity of the bonded atoms.
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Permanent Dipole-Dipole Force
An attractive force between permanent dipole in neighboring polar molecules.
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Polar Covalent Bond
A bond with a permanent dipole.
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Polar Molecule
A molecule with an overall dipole, taking into any dipoles across bonds
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Redox Reaction
A reaction in which oxidation and reduction takes place.
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Reduction
A gain of electrons, or a decrease in oxidation number.
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Relative Atomic Mass
The mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of Carbon-12.
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Relative Formula Mass
The mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of Carbon-12.
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Relative Isotopic Mass
The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of an atom of Carbon-12.
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Relative Molecular Mass
The mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelfth of an atom of Carbon-12.
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Salt
A chemical compound formed from an acid and base react together.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction by breaking the bonds.

Back

Activation Energy

Card 3

Front

A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions, OH-(aq) ions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Without water.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A region within an ion that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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