Chem As Definitions (I)

  • Created by: holly
  • Created on: 02-01-13 12:40
Functional Group
Part of the organic molecule responsible for chemical reactions
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Homologous Series
Series of organic molecules with same functional group but with each sucesive member differing by CH2
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General Formula
Simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Displayed Formula
Shows the relative positioning of al the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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Structural Formula
Shows minimal detail for the arrangment of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal Formula
Simplified organic formula with Hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton & associated functional groups
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Structural Isomer
Molecules with same molecular formula but with different strucral arrangements of atoms
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space
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E/Z Isomerism
Type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a c=c double bond may be arranged differntly in space because of the restricted rotation of the c=c double bond
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Cis/Trans Isomerism
Special type of E/Z Isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and gidrogen on each C of the c=c double bond: cis isomer has the H atoms on each Carbon on the same side: Trans isomer has the H atoms on each Carbon on different sides
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Homolytic Fission
Breaking of a covalent bond with of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming 2 radicals
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Heterolytic Fission
Breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+ve) & an anion (-ve)
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Fractional Distillation
Separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fraction which differ in boiling pt. (& therefore chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column
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Cracking
Breaking down of long chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter chained alkanes & alkenes
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Initiation
1st step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by UV radiation
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Propagation
2 repeated steps in radical substitution that build up tyhe products in a chain reaction
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Termination
Step @ end of a radical substitution when 2 radicals combine to form a molecule
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Addition Polymer
Very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers)
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Addition Polymerisation
Process in which unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers) add on to a growing polymer chain one @ a time, to form a very long saturated molecular chain
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Pi Bond
Reactive pat of a double bond formed above & below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals
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Repeat Unit
Specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again. Repeat units are incl. in brackets, outside of which in symbol 'n'.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Series of organic molecules with same functional group but with each sucesive member differing by CH2

Back

Homologous Series

Card 3

Front

Simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Shows the relative positioning of al the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Shows minimal detail for the arrangment of atoms in a molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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