CELL STRUCTURE: Eukaryotic Cell Organelles

Mitochondrion
Double membrane structure where aerobic respiration (ATP synthesis) occurs. This provides the energy a cell needs to move, divide and produce secretory products.
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Lysosomes
These are vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes that assist in intracellular digestion. The enzymes break down bacteria and are released in white blood cells to kill and digest bacteria the cell has engulfed.
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Plasma Membrane
A phospholipid bilayer with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. Has proteins channels set into the barrier to transport substances into the cell. It is partially permeable and provides protection and allows the import and export of chemicals.
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Golgi Apparatus
Processes and packages proteins before sending them out. It has a single membrane that binds a stack of large vesicles in a network where they can modify and package proteins for transport.
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Peroxisome
Membrane bound packets of oxidative enzymes responsible for turning hydrogen peroxide, which is toxic, into water and oxygen molecules.
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Cytoplasm
Composed of water and nutrients, it contains the cytoskeleton and centrosomes which assemble microtubules. It is made up of a semi-liquid medium which organelles are suspended in and contains many ions as it is the site of most chemical reactions.
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Cytoskeleton
Composed of microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments and function for both movement and support in the cell.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
A continuation of the outer nuclear membrane that assists in the synthesis and transport of lipids. It doesn't have ribosomes.
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
A folded membrane which is a continuation of the outer nuclear membrane. It has ribosomes which synthesise proteins.
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Nuclear Pore
Protein-lined channels regulating the transport of chemicals and substances to and from the nucleus. mRNA moves through these.
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Centriole/Microtubules
Two short cylinders (centrioles) containing a ring of nine groups of fused microtubules. Involved in cell division as they move to opposite poles when the spindle develops.
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Secretory Vesicle
Hormones, neurotransmitters and other cell secretions are packaged in secretory vesicles before transported to cell membranes.
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Nucleolus
Where RNA and ribosomes are made within the nucleus. Made of proteins and isn't a membrane-bound structure.
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Vacuole
Membrane-bound sacks that aid in intracellular digestion, storing nutrients and waste products and increasing the size of the cell during growth. These are small in animal cells (and large in plant cells).
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Ribosomes
These are the site of protein synthesis as RNA is transferred here from the nucleus. It is a structure in two parts, a larger and smaller subunit, both full of RNA.
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Chloroplasts (PLANT)
Have a double membrane. Are the site of photosynthesis in a plant.
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1st and 2nd stages in a chloroplast? (PLANT)
1st: ligh energy is trapped to make ATP and water is split for the hydrogen ions. 2nd: hydrogen reduces CO2 taken in by plant and uses energy to produce ATP.
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Cell Wall (PLANT)
Made of cellulose and is strong to prevent cells from bursting when turgid. Provide support, maintain shape and allow solutions to pass through.
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What are fungi cell walls made of?
Chitin
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Lysosomes

Back

These are vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes that assist in intracellular digestion. The enzymes break down bacteria and are released in white blood cells to kill and digest bacteria the cell has engulfed.

Card 3

Front

Plasma Membrane

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Golgi Apparatus

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Peroxisome

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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