Cell Organisation part 1

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What is the order from smallest to largest of cells?
Organelle, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
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What is the order from smallest to largest of muscles?
Nucleus, muscle cell, Muscle, heart, Circulatory system, Human
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What are proteins?
long chains of amino acids
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What are enzymes?
a biological catalyst made up of Protein
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What is the enzymes role?
to speed up reactions
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What is the lock and key method?
enzyme attaches To substrate, specific shape for substrates and breaks it down into smaller pieces
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What does fat break down into?
fat--lipase--glycerol+fatty acid
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What does protein break down into?
protein--protease--amino acids
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What does starch break down into?
starch--amylase--sugars
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Name 4 adaptions for exchange in the small intestine:
Large Surface area, Thin wall, Good blood supply, Wet surface
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Name the parts of the respiratory system:
Heart, Lung, Liver, Trachea, Larynx
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What is the larynx essential for in the respiratory system?
Larynx: The larynx is essential to human speech
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What is the tranchea in the respiratory sysytem?
Trachea: Located just below the larynx, the trachea is the main airway to the lungs
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What are the lungs responsible for in the respiratory system?
Lungs: Together the lungs form one of the body’s largest organs. They’re responsible for providing oxygen to capillaries and exhaling carbon dioxide.
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What does the diaphram do in the respiratory system?
Diaphragm: The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle that contracts and relaxes to allow air into the lungs.
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What does the heart do in the respiratory system?
The heart pumps the blood throughout the body to distribute the oxygen to all the tissues and to bring the carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be exhaled.
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What does the liver do in the respiratory system?
Liver: Largest solid organ in the body, filters harmful chemicals from going through the body and stores them inside the organ
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Why are parts covered in a layer of white fat cells?
Because it provides energy storage and insulation in the tissue e.g. the adipose tissue
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How many pumps does the heart have?
The Heart has two pumps that beat together about 70 times a min
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What does one carry in the heart?
One carries blood from your heart to your lungs and back
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What does the other carry?
The other carries blood around the rest of your body and back again
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What animal is this vital too?
This is vital for WARM blooded active animals
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What are the walls that protect the heart called?
Coronary arteries-Walls of heart are supplied by own blood supply
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Both the artery and the vein has the same features, but how are they different?
Because the artery is a round circle whereas the vein is more of an oval shape
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The capillary is also a blood vessel, but how is this one different to the others?
It is smaller in size and has a single layer of endothelial cells and a nucleus of endothelial cells
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What do the arteries do?
Carry blood away from the heart and Carry oxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary artery)
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what does the artery wall consist of?
A basement membrane, a tunica intima, a tunica media and a tunica externa
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List 4 things that the arteries do or do not have:
High pressure, Small lumen, Does have a pulse, No valves
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The arteries have thick muscular walls, but how many layers do they have?
3 layers
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What are the 3 layers made up of?
Thin tough outer layer, Thick muscular middle layer, Thin inner layer of cells
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What do the veins do?
Carry blood toward the heart and Carry deoxygenated blood
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What does the vein consist of?
A tunica intima, a tunica media and a tunic externa
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List 4 things that the vein has or not:
Low pressure, Large lumen, Does not have a pulse, Valves present
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The vein has thinner more flexible walls, but how many layers does it have?
3 layers like the arteries
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What are the 3 layers made up of?
Thick tough outer layer, Muscular middle layer, Thin inner layer of cells
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What do the capillaries do?
Penetrate all tissues
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Are the capillaries narrow?
Very narrow – only one cell wide
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What happens in a cell in the capillaries?
One cell thick walls – allows transport of oxygen and nutrient into body cells and wastes out of cells
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What do the capillaries consist of?
An arteriole, a venule, an artery, capillaries, tissue cells and a vein
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What are white blood cells for?
They find and destroy pathogens and can change shape = engulf pathogens
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What is plasma?
Plasma is the liquid part of blood
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What are plasma blood cells for?
Transport soluble substances, Liquid = substances can dissolve and contains platelets = clump together to clot wounds/ stop bleeding
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What else travels in blood plasma?
Glucose, ions, carbon dioxide, urea, proteins, hormones, amino acids, other sugars, Anything that needs to get transported around in our body
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What are red blood cells for?
They Carry oxygen around the body and are Made of haemoglobin which Binds to oxygen in lungs = oxyhaemoglobin. Oxygen dropped off at tissues.
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Red blood cells are:
Flexible = fit in small spaces, Small/compact = large surface are, have No nucleus = space for more oxygen,
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What is an advantage of artificial hearts?
useful where no other treatment is available or patient is near to death
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What are the disadvantages
low success rate, device has limited lifespan/battery ill need changing, discomfort from heart, risk of infection
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the order from smallest to largest of muscles?

Back

Nucleus, muscle cell, Muscle, heart, Circulatory system, Human

Card 3

Front

What are proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the enzymes role?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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