Year 10 Biology
- Animal Cells
- Plant Cells
- Bacteria & Yeast Cells
- Organisation of Plants & Animals
What is the function of the NUCLEUS?
Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell.
What is the function of the CYTOPLASM?
Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes.
What is the function of the CELL MEMBRANE?
Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
What is the function of the MITOCHONDRIA?
Most energy is released by respiration here.
What are the functions of the RIBOSOMES?
Protein synthesis happens here.
Plants have the same functions, plus these extras:
- Cell wall
- Permanent vacuole
What is the function of the CELL WALL?
Strengthens the cell.
What are the functions of the CHLOROPLASTS?
Contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
What is the function of the PERMANENT VACUOLE?
Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid.
Bacteria & Yeast Cells
What cell parts does a bacterium have?
A bacterium is a single-celled organism. A bacterial cell has a different structure to an animal or plant cell. It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a surrounding cell wall, but the genetic material in a bacterial cell is not in a distinct nucleus.
What cell parts does yeast have?
Yeast is a single-celled organism. Like bacterial cells, yeast cells have cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. But unlike bacterial cells, yeast cells have a nucleus.
What is diffusion?
Dissolved substances have to pass through the cell membrane to get into or out of a cell. Diffusion is one of the processes that allows this to happen.
Diffusion occurs when particles spread. They move from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they are in low concentration. Diffusion happens when the particles are free to move. This is true in gases and for particles dissolved in solutions. Particles diffuse down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This is how the smell of cooking travels around the house from the kitchen, for example.
Organisation of Plants & Animals
In order of increasing complexity, multicellular organisms consist of:
organelles → cells → tissues → organs → organ systems