Cell Organelles

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 08-04-16 16:23
What does the nucleus contain and control?
The nucleus contains the organisms hereditary material and controls the cells activities. It's usually between 10 and 20µ
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What does the nucleus act as?
The cells control centre through the production of mRNA and the nucleus is a store of genetic material, it's responsible for manufacturing rRNA and ribosomes.
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What is the nuclear envelope and what does it do?
Double membrane called the nuclear envelope, continuous with E.R, it controls the entry and exit of materials in and out of the nucleus. It's interdispersed by pores allowing large molecules such as mRNA to leave the nucleus.
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What are some other factors of the nucleus?
Most of the nucleus is made up of nucleoplasm (a granular material). There's a dark-staining area called the nucleolus which manufactures ribosomal rRNA and assembles ribosomes.
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What is mitochondria?
Mitochondria is a double-membraned structure and it's inner membrane is highly infolded to create fingers called cristae. The inner space is referred to as the matrix.
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What do cristae do in mitochondria?
They increase the surface area available for the attachment of enzymes involved in respiration.
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What does the matrix contain?
The matrix contains proteins, lipids and traces of DNA that allow mitochondria to produce their own proteins.
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What do mitochondria do?
They perform respiration, they're found in high concentrations in cells that have a high level of metabolic activity. They're responsible for the production of ATP.
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What is endoplasmic reticulum?
It's a 3D network of cavities (small and sac-like or long and tubular, all surrounded by a membrane). It spreads throughout the whole of the cytoplasm.
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What dose the endoplasmic reticulum link with?
It links with the nuclaer membrane and makes up a large part of the transport system within a cell as well as being the site of synthseis for many important chemicals.
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What is a factor of rough endoplasmic reticulum and what does it do?
It's studded on its outside membrane with ribosome, the ribosomes make proteins by translating small pieces of mRNA. The R.E.R then isolates and transports these proteins once they've been made.
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Why does the rough endoplasmic reticulum have a large surface area?
For the synthesis of all of the proteins, and once made the rough endoplasmic reticulum stores or transports these proteins both within the cell and from inside to the outside of the cell
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What does smooth endoplasmic reticulum do?
It's involved in synthesis and transport, but in this case of the fatty molecules known as steroids and lipids
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Where is lots of S.E.R found?
In the testes as this is the organ that synthesizes the steroid hormone testosterone. In the liver as it synthesizes cholesterol as used in the production of plasma membranes.
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What is Golgi body?
Golgi body is made up of stacks of parallel, membrane-bound, flattened pockets called cisternae. The cisternae are formed from vesicles from the E.R that has fused together
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How did scientists discover the role of Golgi body?
By radio-labelling materials in cells and tracking their movements.
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What do vesicles from the E.R that make up the Golgi contain?
Vesicles from the E.R that make up Golgi contain proteins, the vesicles from the E.R join with the sacs of Golgi body and the protein enters the Golgi stack, as it moves through the stack it's modified in various ways.
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What is the role of the Golgi in plants and insects?
In plants it's involved in the production of the materials necessary for making cell walls. In insects it helps produce the cuticle, or hard shell.
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What does the Golgi have an important role in?
Modifying and orientating membrane proteins.
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What are lysosomes?
They are utilised by single-celled organisms to digest food, they can cause damaged sells to self-destruct and they contain proteases and lipases
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What do lysosomes do?
Isolate potentially harmful enzymes from the rest of the cell. Destroy worn out organelles and break down dead cells by autolysis. They're abundant in secretory cells such as epithelial cells.
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What do lysosomes release their contents into?
A phagocytic vesicle and lysosomes are used to break down the material ingested by phagocytic cells such as white blood cells.
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What are ribosomes?
Ribosomes are small granules often found in association with endoplasmic reticulum. They're made up of two sub units, one large and one small.
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What do both sub units contain and what do ribosomes do?
Both sub units contain proteins and rRNA, ribosomes synthesize proteins.
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What subunit do eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells contain?
Eukaryotic cells (plants, animal, fungi, protoctista) contain the larger 80S type. Prokaryotic cells (bateria) contain the smaller 70S type.
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What are centrioles?
They're found in all animal cells, most protocists but absent from cells of higher plants. Located in an area of the cytoplasm, the centrosome. Consist of 2 hollow cylinders at right angles to eachother.
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What are chloroplasts?
They're found in cells of photosynthetic tissue. They have a double membrane, inside is the stroma which contains ribosomes, lipids, circular DNA and maybe starch.
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What is within the stroma?
Flattened sacks called thylakoids. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum and each granum had between 2 and 100 thylakoids. The photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll are found in the thylakoids.
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What is a vacuole?
A large and permanent structure in plant cells, a fluid filled sac bounded by a single membrane called the tonoplast. Contains cell sap, is a storage site for glucose. Provides support of young tissue.
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What type of vacuole do animal cells contain?
They contain temporary vacuoles, these re much smaller and called vesicles.
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What do cellulose cell walls consist of and what do the do?
They consist of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a polysaccharide matrix. Main function is to provide strength and support and to permit the movement of water from cell to cell
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does the nucleus act as?


The cells control centre through the production of mRNA and the nucleus is a store of genetic material, it's responsible for manufacturing rRNA and ribosomes.

Card 3


What is the nuclear envelope and what does it do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are some other factors of the nucleus?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is mitochondria?


Preview of the front of card 5
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