Cell Division

What are the two types of cell division?
Mitosis and meiosis.
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What is mitosis?
This is one replication of DNA followed by one division which produces two genetically identical daughter cells.
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What is mitosis used for?
Growth, repair, replacement, and - in some organisms - reproduction.
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Why do we use mitosis for growth and repair?
If cells are damaged or die we need to replace them with genetically identical ones; if not then they would not perform the right function.
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What is meiosis?
This is one replication followed by two divisions which produces four haploid daughter cells.
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What are haploids and diploids?
Haploids are cells with 23 chromosomes; diploids are cells with 46 chromosomes.
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What is the cell cycle?
The cell cycle is the sequence of events that occurs from the formation of an individual cell until it divides to form daughter cells.
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What makes up the cell cycle?
G1, S, G2 - cell growth and replication (Interphase) and M phase - cell division (PMAT)
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When does DNA replication take place?
When the cell is at rest (Interphase).
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Describe the arrangement of DNA in the cell: a) when the cell is at rest, and b) when the cell is dividing.
a) When a cell is not dividing, the DNA and associated proteins are a tangled mess of thin cells called chromatin. b) At the time of cell division, the chromatin condenses to form highly compacted structures called chromosomes.
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What is chromatid?
It is one part of a chromosome that is identical to its corresponding chromatid in the chromosome.
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Why do chromosomes appear as a double structure (chromatids)?
Because of DNA replication.
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What happens in the G1 (Gap phase 1) phase?
The cell grows and new organelles/proteins are made.
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What happens in the S (synthesis) phase?
The cell replicates and the DNA is ready for mitosis.
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What happens in the G2 (Gap phase 2) phase?
The cell keeps growing and the proteins needed for cell division are made (centrioles).
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What happens in the M (mitosis) phase?
The cell divides.
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What happens during interphase?
The DNA replicates, centrioles replicate, protein synthesis occurs, and ATP (energy) is produced
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What happens during prophase?
The chromosomes condense and become visible, the nuclear membrane disappears, and the centrioles produce spindle fibres.
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What happens during metaphase?
The chromosomes line up along the equator/middle of the spindle.
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What happens during anaphase?
The centromeres split and the chromatids get pulled apart by spindle fibres to opposite ends (poles) of the cell.
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What happens during telophase?
The nuclear membrane reforms and cytoplasm splits.
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What are centrioles?
They are the organelles which produce the spindle fibres that pull apart chromosomes.
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Why can any cell in your body be used to clone you?
Every cell contains a full set of DNA that codes for any process/function in the body.
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What is cytokinesis?
The division of the cell into two complete daughter cells.
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What is contact inhibition?
The breakdown of the cell's response to stimuli which tell it that it should stop reproducing (because the area is being overcrowded with cells so there are enough and the continuing of cell growth is what causes tumours).
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Card 2

Front

What is mitosis?

Back

This is one replication of DNA followed by one division which produces two genetically identical daughter cells.

Card 3

Front

What is mitosis used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do we use mitosis for growth and repair?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is meiosis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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