C2 Practicals

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Are common salts, such as sodium, potassium and ammonium, soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
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Name three common salts
Sodium, potassium, ammonium
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Are nitrates soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
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Are common chlorides soluble or insoluble?
soluble (except silver and lead chloride)
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Are common sulfates soluble or insoluble?
soluble (except lead, barium and calcium sulfate)
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Are common carbonates and hydroxides soluble or insoluble?
Insoluble except for sodium, potassium and ammonium ones
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Name four groups of substances which are soluble
Common salts (sodium, potassium, ammonium), nitrates, chlorides, sulfates
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What is the reaction called whereby insoluble salts are made?
Precipitation reactions
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To make an insoluble salt, what must you react?
Two soluble salts
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Stage 1 in a precipitation reaction between lead nitrate and sodium chloride
1 spatula lead nitrate to test tude, fill with distilled water, shake to ensure dissolution, repeat with sodium chloride. Tip two solutions into beaker, stir, lead chloride should precipitate out.
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Stage 2 in a precipitation reaction between lead nitrate and sodium chloride
Put folded filter paper into filter funnel, stick in concical flask. Pour contents into beaker, swill out with distilled water and tip into filter paper.
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Stage 3 in precipitation reaction between lead nitrate and sodium chloride
Rinse contents of filter paper with distilled water to ensure all doluble sodium nitrate is washed away, scrape lead chloride onto fresh filter paper and leave to dry
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What is barium sulfate an example of?
Insoluble salt
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Describe how you would make a pure, dry sample of barium sulfate (insoluble salt) from basium nitrate and potassium sulfate
Mix solutions or barium nitrate and potassium sulfate, filter out the precipitate of barium sulfate, wash it ith distilled water, dry it on filter paper
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Why is barium sulfate so useful?
It is opage to X-rays and can be drunk to show any problems in the gut
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Why is barium sulfate safe to drink?
Because it is insoluble and isn't absorbed into blood stream
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What is a barium meal?
The basium sulfate drunk before an X-ray to show any problems int he gut
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What are flame tests?
When the type of metal is determined by the characteristic colour flame it gives when placed in an open flame.
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To flame test in a lab, you must...
Dip wire loop into hydrochloric acid and rinse with distilled water to ensure it's clean, dip it into a sample of the compound, place wire loop in clear blue part of flame
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Flame tests: Sodium ions give a ... colour flame
yellow/orange
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Potassium ions give a ... colour flame
lilac
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Calcium ions give a ...colour flame
Brick-red
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Copper ions give a ...colour flame
Blue-green
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When you are testing for carbonates, what do you check for?
Carbon dioxide
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How do you test for carbonate ions? Why does it work?
Bubbling a gas through limewater to see if it turns milky, it works because carbonates react with dilute acids (lime water) to form carbon dioxide
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What is the word equation to test for carbonates?
acid + carbonate --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
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How do you test for sulfate ions?
By adding dilute HCl followed by barium chloride solution, a white precipitate of barium sulfate should confirm the original compound was a sulfate
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How do you test for chlorides?
Add dilute nitric acid, followed by silver nitrate solution, a white precipitate of silver chloride should be produced
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What is spectroscopy?
A way to identify elements by the pattern of light emitted by the elements in a heated sample
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What is spectroscopy used to test for?
Elements
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Why is spectroscopy a good way to identify elements?
Fast reliable and used to test very small amount of elements in a sample
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What do you use to separate an immiscible liquid?
Separating funnel
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Describe how a separating funnel with a tap is used to separate immiscible liquids
Two liquids shaken, allowed to stand and then separate into layers. Denser liquid sinks to bottom and less dense one forms layer on top. Tap can be opened to drain off the denser liquid into beaker.
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How do you separate out miscible liquids
Fractional distillation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name three common salts

Back

Sodium, potassium, ammonium

Card 3

Front

Are nitrates soluble or insoluble?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Are common chlorides soluble or insoluble?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Are common sulfates soluble or insoluble?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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