C1 revision cards

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What are the 3 most common gases in the air?
Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon
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There are small amounts of 3 substance in the air, what are they?
Water vapour, carbon dioxide and other gases
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What is the air a mixture of? (Molecule sizes)
Small molecules with large spaces in between them
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How much nitrogen in found in the air?
78%
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How much oxygen is found in the air?
21%
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How are particulates released into the atmosphere?
Human activity or natural processes
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What kind of human activity can release gases and particulates into the air?
Driving car and burning fossil fuels
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What natural proceses can release gases and particulates into the air?
Volcanic eruptions and photosynthesis
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How was the Earth's early atmosphere formed?
Probably by volcanic activity
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What did the Earth's early atmosphere mainly consist of?
Carbon dioxide and water vapour
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How were the oceans formed?
The water vapour condensed when the earth cooled down
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How did the evolution of photosynthesising organisms affect the atmosphere?
They began to add more oxygen into the atmosphere while using up large amounts of the CO2
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How was more oxygen added to the atmosphere in the early stages of the earth?
By evolved photosynthesising organisms
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How was carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere?
Photosynthesis, dissolved in the ocean and stored in fossils
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What 3 gases have been added to the air due to human activity?
Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide
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What extra gas is added to the atmosphere due to human actvity?
CO2
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How is carbon monoxide formed and what affects does it have?
It is a poisonous gas and is formed when there is incomplete burning
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How is carbon dioxide formed and what affects does it have?
It is a contributing factor to global and is formed in combustion
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How are particulates formed and what affects does it have?
They are formed when fuels are burnt incompletely and correlate with breathing problems and also makes buildings appear dirty.
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How is sulfur dioxide formed and what affects does it have?
It is formed when you burn fuels that contain sulfur and the sulfur and oxygen atoms combine to form sulfur dioxide. It contributes to acid rain
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How are nitrogen oxides formed and what affects does it have?
They are formed when fuels are burnt at a high temperature and the atoms in the air combine. This usually occurs in car engines. They contribute to acid rain
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How is nitrogen monoxide formed?
When the air is exposed to high temperatures
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How is nitrogen dioxide formed?
When nitrogen monoxide reacts with more oxygen in the air
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What affect can carbon monoxide have on humans?
It reduces the amount of oxygen the blood can carry
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What is coal mainly made from?
Carbon molecules
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What are 3 main fuels that contain hydrocarbons?
Petrol, diesel fuel and fuel oil
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What happens when a hydrocarbon is burnt?
It forms carbon dioxide because there is oxygen in the air
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What is oxidation?
A substance that is chemically joined with oxygen
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What is reduction?
A substance that has a loss in oxygen
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How can fuels be burnt more rapidly?
By using pure oxygen
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What can be obtained and used to support combustion?
Oxygen
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What are rearranged during a chemical reaction?
The atoms
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What pollutants are given off when burning fossil fuels?
CO2, SO2, CO, particulate carbon, NOx
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What gases did volcanoes produce?
Carbon dioxide, water vapour and nitrogen
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Why were early organisms killed off?
Because of the increase of oxygen
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What is a pollutant?
A harmful chemical in our environment
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How can pollutants harm us indirectly?
By harming our environment
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What is equal throughtout a chemical reaction?
The mass
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The majority of the fuels we use contain what?
Hydrocarbons (Hydrogen and carbon)
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What is combustion an example of?
An oxidation reaction
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Why do we burn fossil fuels?
To get energy
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How is CO2 removed from the atmosphere?
Photosynthesis and dissolving in river and lakes
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What is the most simplest way of reducing pollution?
Use less electricity
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How would we reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide formed?
We would use one of two methods of wet scrubbing. Either by seawater; which dissolves the sulfur and leaves us with CO2, water and dissolved sulfate. Or, an alkaline slurry (putting calcium oxide in the water.) Which makes calcium sulfite form
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How can we reduce pollutants given off by cars?
Use cars with more efficient engines. Especially those that contain catalytic converters
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What do catalytic converters do?
They convert toxic gases into less harmless gases. Such as nitrogen oxide can be converted into nitrogen and oxygen.
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What are MOT tests for?
To test your car on its emission levels and o see if it is within the legal limit
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What renewable energy source can be used to power a car?
Biofuels or electric batteries
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How does sulfur dioxide leave our atmosphere?
It leaves in acid rain
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

There are small amounts of 3 substance in the air, what are they?

Back

Water vapour, carbon dioxide and other gases

Card 3

Front

What is the air a mixture of? (Molecule sizes)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How much nitrogen in found in the air?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How much oxygen is found in the air?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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