BY5: Genetic Code + Cell Function - Key Words & Definitions

HideShow resource information
DNA
The carrier of genetic information in (most) organisms. Abbreviation of Deoxyribonucleic acid.
1 of 18
template
The strand of DNA which is used to determine the sequence of nucleotides in RNA after transcription.
2 of 18
chromosomes
Twisted and compact structure of DNA and protein which carries genes.
3 of 18
genes
A distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome which dictates which polypeptide should be synthesised in protein synthesis.
4 of 18
protein synthesis
Process in which cells build proteins at ribosomes using tRNA and mRNA with amino acids.
5 of 18
transcription
The process in which DNA is transcribed into an mRNA molecule for protein synthesis.
6 of 18
translation
Performed at the ribosomes, translation takes nucleotide triplets on mRNA and builds a sequence of amino acids as part of protein synthesis.
7 of 18
RNA
Abbreviation of Ribonucleic acid. Carries instructions from DNA in most organisms by can be the carrier of genetic information (instead of DNA) in some viruses.
8 of 18
codon
Sequence of three nucleotides which together indicate an amino acid which should be built into a polypeptide chain.
9 of 18
mRNA
Messenger RNA is a template for protein synthesis. It is made from transcription before mRNA leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores and travels to ribosome(s) where it is read to synthesis proteins.
10 of 18
tRNA
Transfer RNA is a small RNA molecule that joins an amino acid to a polypeptide chain as part of protein synthesis.
11 of 18
meiosis
Cell division which produces four haploid daughter cells.
12 of 18
homologous
Chromosomes which have the same structural features and gene loci which pair up during meiosis.
13 of 18
ribosome
A cell organelle found in the cytoplasm consisting of a large and small sub unit which reads mRNA and produces polypeptide chains.
14 of 18
genotype
The alleles at the same loci of each chromosome of an organism.
15 of 18
phenotype
The observable characteristics of an individual produced by its genes.
16 of 18
crossing over
Occurring during meiosis it is the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes.
17 of 18
independent assortment
The random manner in which chromosomes are distributed to each gamete produced in meiosis.
18 of 18

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The strand of DNA which is used to determine the sequence of nucleotides in RNA after transcription.

Back

template

Card 3

Front

Twisted and compact structure of DNA and protein which carries genes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome which dictates which polypeptide should be synthesised in protein synthesis.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Process in which cells build proteins at ribosomes using tRNA and mRNA with amino acids.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes and structure resources »