Brain Cells

  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 02-02-18 16:52
What neurotransmitter does the adrenal glands secrete?
Adrenaline
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What does metabotropic mean?
A membrane receptor which acts through secondary messengers
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Why do we have a blood brain barrier?
To prevent toxic substances entering into the brain
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Give an example, function and special feature of nerve cells
Brain, direct cell communication, release chemical messengers directly onto other cells
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Describe the anatomy of the human brain
Has a frontal lobe and an occipital lobe. Cerebral cortex, cerebellum etc.
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Describe the anatomy of a neurone
Has a cell body with a nucleus. Has axons with nodes of Ranvier and myelin sheath with axon terminals and many dendrites
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Give examples of neurones
Large, small, spindle, pyramidal, globus, granule etc.
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What are the four types of neurone?
Bipolar (interneuron), unipolar (sensory neurone), multipolar (motorneuron) and pyramidal cell
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Where are bipolar neurones located?
Connected between rods/cones and ganglion cells (towards optic nerve and retina)
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Where are unipolar neurones located?
In the epidermis or dermis (sensory receptors)
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Where are purkinje and granular neurones located?
In the cerebellum
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Where are multipolar neurones located?
In the spinal cord, in substantia nigra
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Where are pyramidal neurones located?
In the hippocampus
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Where are basket cells located?
In the cerebellum
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Describe features of motor neurones
Connected to effector (muscle or gland) and to sensory/relay neurones
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Describe features of interneurones
Pass information from neurone to neurone. Not very common (retina)
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What are afferent and efferent neurones?
Afferent neurones are sensory neurones and efferent neurones are motor neurones
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Describe features of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
Sympathetic (fight or flight response). Parasympathetic (rest and digest)
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Describe features of adrenal glands
Not a tissue as such. Collective of nerve endings which release adrenaline
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What are the three types of neuroglia (support cells)?
Microglia (responsible for fighting infections in the brain), astrocyte (protects neurone, interacts directly with capillaries, forms blood brain barrier) and oligodendrocyte (myelin sheath/nodes/conduction, large nucleus) - metabolic support
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What is a pericyte (BBB)?
Controls volume (releases ATP)
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What disease is associated with the degeneration of myelin sheath?
Multiple Sclerosis
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What is microglia similar to?
Macrophages (immune response)
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Describe features of a synapse
Gap junction between neurones. Electrical signal arrives at pre-synaptic terminus. Convert into chemical signal, diffusion of neurotransmitters across synaptic cleft. Electrical signal reaches post synaptic terminus, dendrites (polarisation)
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Which ions are involved in the transportation of an electrical signal across a synapse?
Calcium ions (cause polarisation) and sodium ions (open up channels on post synaptic terminus)
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Describe features of ionotropic receptors and metabotropic receptors
Ionotropic (ion binds to channel, allows ions to pass through/common), metabotropic (ion binds to receptor, downstream effect)
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Give examples of neurotransmitters
ACh (neuromuscular junction), amino acids (glycine), monoamines (dopamine, CNS function), neuropeptides (endorphins, pain, growth hormone, pain mediation)
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Each nerve cell can have up to 100,000 synapses, why?
Chemical messenger has a slow but longer lasting effect (useful for effects of drugs on the body) - if one synapse is damaged, there are many other synapses to carry the signal
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Describe features of retinal electrical synapse
Nerve impulse enters presynaptic neurone, gap junction opens, allows neurotransmitters/ions to flow directly to postsynaptic neurone - no synaptic cleft
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Why is the electrical synapse only present in the retina?
To ensure rapid transmission of signal/energy dependent)
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Describe features of the neuromuscular junction
Presynaptic neurone adjacent to muscle fibre. Ca ions, polarisation, neurotransmitters in vesicles released across synaptic cleft, sodium ions bind to open channels, neurotransmitters bind in muscle, sarcoplasm/calcium ions, T-tubule, contraction
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Card 2

Front

What does metabotropic mean?

Back

A membrane receptor which acts through secondary messengers

Card 3

Front

Why do we have a blood brain barrier?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example, function and special feature of nerve cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the anatomy of the human brain

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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