Brain anatomy functions

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  • Created by: freya_bc
  • Created on: 09-02-17 19:06
CNS includes
brain and spinal cord
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Peripheral nervous system
everything else
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The main section of the brain
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opposite side
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same side
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Frontal/ transverse/ coronal
parallel to forehead
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arrow, perpendicular to ground, parallel to neuraxis
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parallel to ground
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Grey matter
cell bodies, dendrites e.g. cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus
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White matter
myelinared axons
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Corpus callosum
commissure, larger fibre bundle to connect the two hemispheres of the brain
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3 layers of tissue protecting the brain and spinal cord
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Dura mater
Outermost layer of meninges tough and flexible
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Arachnoid membrane
soft and spongy layer in middle
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Pia mater
clings to surface of brain thin and delicate
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Cerebrospinal fluid
clear fluid that fills the subarachnoid space, shock absorber, buoyancy, takes weight of spine
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Name of the membrane in the ventricular system
choroid plexus
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Cerebral aqueduct
connects third and fourth membrane
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massa intermedia
bridge of neural tissue crosses through middle of 3rd ventricle, acts as a reference point
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blood-brain barrier
lipid soluable substances pass through, substances with large molecules AT through walls
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What is in the prosencephalon
the telencephalon/ end brain and diencephalon/ interbrain
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Principle structures of telencephalon
cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system
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Principle structures of diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus
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Principle structures of mesencephalon
Tectum and tegmentum
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What is the rhombencephalon sub-divided into
metencephalon/ after brain, and myelencephalon/ marrow brain
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Principle structures of metencephalon?
cerebellum, pons
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Principle structures of myelencephalon?
medulla oblongata
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Cerebral cortex
outer surface of cerebrum 3mm thick folded for SA therefore more neurons
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crack/clefts/ grooves
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Example sulci
central sulcus, sylivian/lateral fissure
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What is a fissure?
A major sulcus/groove
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Example gyri
precentral gryus/ post central gyrus
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Function of frontal lobe
motor and cog: attention, problem solving, planning
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Parietal lobe function
somatosensory- body positioning, movement of body parts, interact with envi through touch
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Occipital lobe
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Temporal lobe
hearing, vision, cognition, emotion
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4 primary areas
somatosensory, visual, auditory (receive all info from senses), motor (connected to muscles in body) all contralateral except olfaction and taste
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Primary association area
Sensory association area- receive info from primary regions/sensory cortex
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Other frontal areas
Premotor cortex- controls primary motor cortex, prefrontal cortex- planning/ strategies/ judgment
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Limbic system
memory formation and storagem regulating emotion, processing smells, sexual arousal, RESPONSE TO STRESS
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Cingulate gryus
part of limbic system, ***** of limbic cortex lying along lateral walls of the grooves separating the cerebral hemispheres, above the corpus callosum
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Other parts of the limbic system
hippocampus, limbic cortex, amygdala, fornix, mammillary bodies
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consolidating memory, context, spatial navigation, mapping
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emotional memory/ fear-related behaviour
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connects mammillary bodies to hypothamalus
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Basal ganglia components
striatum, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus
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Receives all input to BG and sends to globus pallidus
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Globus pallidus
Acts like a volume control (info telling you to move) therefore movement blocked
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two lobes separated by massa intermedia, receives snesory info and sends/relays this to cortex
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Lateral geniculate nucleus
receives fibres from retina, projects to visual cortex
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Medial geniculate nucleus
receives fibres from auditory system and projects fibres to primary auditory cortex
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Ventrolateral nucleus
receives inputs from the cerebellum and sends axons to primary motor cortex
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controls autonomic nervous system (ANS)- HR, digestion, breathing (things not consciously directed) and endocrine system- produce hormones, 4Fs, on both sides of ventral portion of 3rd ventricle
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Pituitary gland
connected to hypothal, hyp produces hormones than control p.gland, send hormones to bloodstream- metabolism, sleep, repro physiology, behaviour, growth, anterior pg secretions control by hypothal, posterior has hormone secrete t.buttons c.bodies hypt
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what is the central of the 3 major divisions in the brain
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Name the alternative name for mesecencephalon
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Name the 2 components of the mesecephalon
Tectum and tegmentum
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Name the 2 components of the tectum
superior and inferior colliculi
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Function of the superior colliculi
visual processing
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Function of the inferior colliculi
auditory processing
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name the 4 components of the tegmentum
reticular formation, periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, substantia nigra
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Function of the reticular formation
net like structure of nuclei- sleep, arousal, attention, muscle tonus, movement, vital reflexes
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Function of Periaquductal gray matter
predominantly cell bodies of neurons, surrounds cerebral aqueduct, species typical behaviour- mating/fighting
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Function of red nucleus
limb movement- two major fibre systems that bring motor info from cerebral cortex and cerebellum to spinal cord
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Function of substantia nigra
black substance, connects to basal ganglia, initiating movement, loss of dopaminergic neurons in s.n in PD, contains neurons whose axons project to b.g
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What is the back of the brain known as?
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Name the 2 components of the metencephalon
pons and cerebellum
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Function of the pons
bridge- sleep and arousal, relays info from cortex to cerebellum, contains some of the reticular formation , axons cross sides contralateral
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Function of cerebellum
Important for coordination of movement- 2 hemispheres like cortex, little brain, folds in surface, 69bil neurons here, cog functions- attention, timing, rhythm, damage impairs standing/walking, receives auditory, vestibular and somato info...
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integrates info and modifies motor outflow
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What is the last region of the brain?
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What brain structure is included in the myelecephalon?
Medulla oblongata
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Function of the medulla oblongata
regulation of cardiovascular system, HR, coughing, vomiting, sneezing, respiration and skeletal muscle tonus, reticular formation
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Brain stem?
situated between thalamus and spinal cord
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Peripheral nervous system


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