Brain anatomy functions

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: freya_bc
  • Created on: 09-02-17 19:06
CNS includes
brain and spinal cord
1 of 89
Peripheral nervous system
everything else
2 of 89
Cerebrum?
The main section of the brain
3 of 89
Cerebellum?
Balance
4 of 89
Contralateral
opposite side
5 of 89
Ipsilateral
same side
6 of 89
Dorsal
back
7 of 89
Ventral
belly
8 of 89
Rostral
beak
9 of 89
Caudal
tail
10 of 89
Anterior
Frontal
11 of 89
Posterior
Behind
12 of 89
Inferior
Bottom
13 of 89
Superior
Top
14 of 89
Frontal/ transverse/ coronal
parallel to forehead
15 of 89
Sagittal
arrow, perpendicular to ground, parallel to neuraxis
16 of 89
Horizontal
parallel to ground
17 of 89
Medial
middle
18 of 89
Lateral
side
19 of 89
Grey matter
cell bodies, dendrites e.g. cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus
20 of 89
White matter
myelinared axons
21 of 89
Corpus callosum
commissure, larger fibre bundle to connect the two hemispheres of the brain
22 of 89
Meninges
3 layers of tissue protecting the brain and spinal cord
23 of 89
Dura mater
Outermost layer of meninges tough and flexible
24 of 89
Arachnoid membrane
soft and spongy layer in middle
25 of 89
Pia mater
clings to surface of brain thin and delicate
26 of 89
Cerebrospinal fluid
clear fluid that fills the subarachnoid space, shock absorber, buoyancy, takes weight of spine
27 of 89
Name of the membrane in the ventricular system
choroid plexus
28 of 89
Cerebral aqueduct
connects third and fourth membrane
29 of 89
massa intermedia
bridge of neural tissue crosses through middle of 3rd ventricle, acts as a reference point
30 of 89
blood-brain barrier
lipid soluable substances pass through, substances with large molecules AT through walls
31 of 89
Prosencephalon
forebrain
32 of 89
What is in the prosencephalon
the telencephalon/ end brain and diencephalon/ interbrain
33 of 89
Principle structures of telencephalon
cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system
34 of 89
Principle structures of diencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus
35 of 89
Mesencephalon
Midbrain
36 of 89
Principle structures of mesencephalon
Tectum and tegmentum
37 of 89
Rhombencephalon
Hidnbrain
38 of 89
What is the rhombencephalon sub-divided into
metencephalon/ after brain, and myelencephalon/ marrow brain
39 of 89
Principle structures of metencephalon?
cerebellum, pons
40 of 89
Principle structures of myelencephalon?
medulla oblongata
41 of 89
Cerebral cortex
outer surface of cerebrum 3mm thick folded for SA therefore more neurons
42 of 89
Sulci
crack/clefts/ grooves
43 of 89
Example sulci
central sulcus, sylivian/lateral fissure
44 of 89
What is a fissure?
A major sulcus/groove
45 of 89
Gyri
folds/buldges
46 of 89
Example gyri
precentral gryus/ post central gyrus
47 of 89
Function of frontal lobe
motor and cog: attention, problem solving, planning
48 of 89
Parietal lobe function
somatosensory- body positioning, movement of body parts, interact with envi through touch
49 of 89
Occipital lobe
vision
50 of 89
Temporal lobe
hearing, vision, cognition, emotion
51 of 89
4 primary areas
somatosensory, visual, auditory (receive all info from senses), motor (connected to muscles in body) all contralateral except olfaction and taste
52 of 89
Primary association area
Sensory association area- receive info from primary regions/sensory cortex
53 of 89
Other frontal areas
Premotor cortex- controls primary motor cortex, prefrontal cortex- planning/ strategies/ judgment
54 of 89
Limbic system
memory formation and storagem regulating emotion, processing smells, sexual arousal, RESPONSE TO STRESS
55 of 89
Cingulate gryus
part of limbic system, ***** of limbic cortex lying along lateral walls of the grooves separating the cerebral hemispheres, above the corpus callosum
56 of 89
Other parts of the limbic system
hippocampus, limbic cortex, amygdala, fornix, mammillary bodies
57 of 89
Hippocampus
consolidating memory, context, spatial navigation, mapping
58 of 89
Amygdala
emotional memory/ fear-related behaviour
59 of 89
Fornix
connects mammillary bodies to hypothamalus
60 of 89
Basal ganglia components
striatum, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus
61 of 89
Striatum
Receives all input to BG and sends to globus pallidus
62 of 89
Globus pallidus
Acts like a volume control (info telling you to move) therefore movement blocked
63 of 89
Thalamus
two lobes separated by massa intermedia, receives snesory info and sends/relays this to cortex
64 of 89
Lateral geniculate nucleus
receives fibres from retina, projects to visual cortex
65 of 89
Medial geniculate nucleus
receives fibres from auditory system and projects fibres to primary auditory cortex
66 of 89
Ventrolateral nucleus
receives inputs from the cerebellum and sends axons to primary motor cortex
67 of 89
Hypothalamus
controls autonomic nervous system (ANS)- HR, digestion, breathing (things not consciously directed) and endocrine system- produce hormones, 4Fs, on both sides of ventral portion of 3rd ventricle
68 of 89
Pituitary gland
connected to hypothal, hyp produces hormones than control p.gland, send hormones to bloodstream- metabolism, sleep, repro physiology, behaviour, growth, anterior pg secretions control by hypothal, posterior has hormone secrete t.buttons c.bodies hypt
69 of 89
what is the central of the 3 major divisions in the brain
Mescencephalon
70 of 89
Name the alternative name for mesecencephalon
Midbrain
71 of 89
Name the 2 components of the mesecephalon
Tectum and tegmentum
72 of 89
Name the 2 components of the tectum
superior and inferior colliculi
73 of 89
Function of the superior colliculi
visual processing
74 of 89
Function of the inferior colliculi
auditory processing
75 of 89
name the 4 components of the tegmentum
reticular formation, periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, substantia nigra
76 of 89
Function of the reticular formation
net like structure of nuclei- sleep, arousal, attention, muscle tonus, movement, vital reflexes
77 of 89
Function of Periaquductal gray matter
predominantly cell bodies of neurons, surrounds cerebral aqueduct, species typical behaviour- mating/fighting
78 of 89
Function of red nucleus
limb movement- two major fibre systems that bring motor info from cerebral cortex and cerebellum to spinal cord
79 of 89
Function of substantia nigra
black substance, connects to basal ganglia, initiating movement, loss of dopaminergic neurons in s.n in PD, contains neurons whose axons project to b.g
80 of 89
What is the back of the brain known as?
hindbrain/rhombencephalon
81 of 89
Name the 2 components of the metencephalon
pons and cerebellum
82 of 89
Function of the pons
bridge- sleep and arousal, relays info from cortex to cerebellum, contains some of the reticular formation , axons cross sides contralateral
83 of 89
Function of cerebellum
Important for coordination of movement- 2 hemispheres like cortex, little brain, folds in surface, 69bil neurons here, cog functions- attention, timing, rhythm, damage impairs standing/walking, receives auditory, vestibular and somato info...
84 of 89
cont
integrates info and modifies motor outflow
85 of 89
What is the last region of the brain?
Myelencephalon
86 of 89
What brain structure is included in the myelecephalon?
Medulla oblongata
87 of 89
Function of the medulla oblongata
regulation of cardiovascular system, HR, coughing, vomiting, sneezing, respiration and skeletal muscle tonus, reticular formation
88 of 89
Brain stem?
situated between thalamus and spinal cord
89 of 89

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Peripheral nervous system

Back

everything else

Card 3

Front

Cerebrum?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cerebellum?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Contralateral

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Functions resources »