Book: TMS

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  • Created by: CanveySam
  • Created on: 08-05-15 11:37
what does TMS stand for?
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
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What is Transcranial Magnetic stimulation?
Non-invasive stimulation of the brain caused by a rapidly changing electrical current in a coil held over the scalp.
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How does TMS work?
A change in electric current (coil) creates a magnetic field (greater chg of current means greater magnetic field). Magnetic field then induces an electric current in the neurons below the scalp. the TMS pulse is brief but effects may last longer.
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How long is the TMS pulse?
1ms
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How long are the effects?
several tens of ms.
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What is the TMS theory of activation?
Process described as "virtual lesion" or interference affect; if a region is critical to a task, there there is likely to be interference because of the dual use of the region.
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What does duel-task interference mean?
If there is a decrement in performance associated with doing two things at once, it suggests that these two tasks share cognitive processes.
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List 6 things that the effectiveness of TMS depends on?
1)strength of magnetic field 2)shape of pulse 3)rate of change 4)frequency of pulses 5)coil configuration 6)coil orientation
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What do simpler TMS machines produce?
Monophasic electric fields; rapid pulse machines produce biphasic waveforms
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Are simpler or rapid-pulse TMD machines slowest to recharge?
Simpler machines take longer to recharge
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What two types of TMS coil are there?
Round coil and figure of eight coil
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Talk about the round TMS coil
1)Insulated circular winding 2)Current creates mag field, which then induces electric current in neurons in scalp 3)no single focus 4)coil placement crucial 5)orientation important
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Talk about the figure-of-eight coils
1)2 round coils with current rotating in opp directions 2)strongest field in centre 3)2 rings at right angle 4)
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List some TMS safety concerns
1)can trigger epilepsy or mood change 2) discomfort e.g. tingling and coil is noisy
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What are clinical applications of TMS?
1)alleviate symptoms eg depression, OCD etc 2)pre-operational functional localisation
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Does TMS explain how the brain works?
No, TMS is a tool that can reveal which cortical areas are involved in a particular
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Why is TMS particularly useful in conjunction with fMRI and EEG?
Spatial resolution from TMS is good (better than EEG and approaching fMRI) and temporal resolution is outstanding. This makes it possible to determine the order in which different cortical areas are involved in behavioural tasks and when interf happe
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Which parts of the brain is TMS most effective at investigating?
Dorsolateral and dorsomedial aspects of the brain. More than half the brain remains 'out of reach'.
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TMS v organic lesions. List 4 TMS points
1) No reorganisation or compensation 2)Lesion is focal 3)Legion can be mode within same participant 4)can study 'functional connectivity'
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TMS v organic lesions. List 3 organic lesion points
1) Subcortical regions can be studied 2)Legions can be accurately localised with MRI 3) changes in behaviour and cognition are more apparent
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What do tDCS and tACS stand for?
tDCS: transcranial direct current stimulation; tACS: transcranial alternating current stimulation
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how does tDCS/tACS work i.e. how many electrodes?
two electrodes:anodal stimulation increases cortical excitability; cathodal decreases.
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How long are the after effects of tDCS?
up to an hour
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name some clinical applications of tDCS
1) stroke treatment 2) in pregnancy 3) inexpensive - pharma alternative
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What is Transcranial Magnetic stimulation?

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Non-invasive stimulation of the brain caused by a rapidly changing electrical current in a coil held over the scalp.

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How does TMS work?

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Card 4

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How long is the TMS pulse?

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How long are the effects?

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