Implicit/ procedural memory

  • Created by: BKW
  • Created on: 20-05-19 09:29
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  • Implicit/ procedural memory
    • Skill learning
      • probabilistic learning
        • Carried out by Knowlton, Mangles and Squire 1996
          • is it going to be raining or sunny based on cards they are given
        • people with damage to basal ganglia eg parkinsons have compromised function of striatum which is involved in habit learning
      • Poldrack et al 2001 - when the striatum is active the hippocampus in inactive and vice versa
        • same areas are more active in an implicit task and the MTL is inactive. this is reversed when task is explicit
    • Classical conditioning - eye blinking
      • when a puff of air hits eye we automatically blink
        • Bracha et al 2000 found pps can associate this with a tone and when we hear the ton we will blink
          • peope with cerebellum daage are impaired in this associative learning but are not amnesic
    • Priming - change in ability due to prior encounter
      • Priming in amnesia
        • evidence that priming is preserved
        • Warrington & Weizkrantsz 1968/70
          • thought he found a way to support amnesic retrieval but really they just discovered preserved priming in amnesia
        • Graf & Schacter 1984
          • presented amnesics with a string of words but only first 3 letters of each word
            • condition 1 pps asked to complete the stems with a word yyouve seen beofre
              • condition 2 had to complete the stem with 1st word that came to mind
                • in condition 2 amnesics were as good as controls - showing piming is preserved in amnesia
      • semantic priming
        • eg if you are shown table, guitar, apple, sofa etc...
          • when asked to name 1st word that comes to mind you are likely to say one of these
      • repetition priming
        • if we are presented with items more than once reaction times and accuracy of recall is better
      • priming and the brain
        • FMRI is particularly useful to see brain activity when priming vs non priming
          • there is no single locus of priming - several processing stages facilitated by repetition
          • Priming activity is associated with reduced activity for studied items
            • this is called priming supresssion
        • Bucknet et al 1998 - Neuroimaging study
          • unprimed items show more activity - shwos activity involved in stimulus processing. eg left frontal gyrus important for knowing the concept of an apple
          • identified areas involved in priming
            • Right extrstriate cortex is important for object represenation
            • left dorsal frontal cortex important for covert naming
        • neuroimaging is correlational and we cant infer causation
          • However rTMS allows us to do this - good for looking at functions of the brain - hard to look at hippocampus as its in the middle of brain
      • conceptual priming and causal relaionships
        • Wig et al 2005 used tms to look at what parts of the brain are important for conceptual priming
          • im phase1 he identified a network of areas showing spression of activity - found left frontal areas and posterior areas were key
            • phase 2 TMS administered during object presentation on left inferior frontal gyrus and left motor cortex. this disabled priming
              • phase 3 shows tms effected the brain as usually priming would reduce activity but there was no reduced activity. Reaction time was reduced after left motor cortex TMS (priming) but not after left frontal cortex TMS (no priminng
          • Activity in LIFG  is therefore essential in behavioural priming


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