Bonding

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What does ionic bonding occur between?
Metals and non metals
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What is ionic bonding?
Electrostatic attraction between oppistely charged ions
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What do ionic compounds always exsist as?
Lattice
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Waht are the properties of ionic compounds?
Solids at room temp, high melting points, conduct electricity when molten, brittle and shatter easily becasue the lattice is made from alternating positive and negative ions, a big blow may put like charges into contact
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What does covalent boding occur between?
Non metals
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What is a covalent bond?
A shared pair of electrons
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How are atoms in a covalent bond held together?
Electrostatic attraction between the nuclei and shared electrons
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How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?
4
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What are the properties of molecular structures?
Low meltng points becasue covalent bonds are only between atoms within the molecule only weak attraction between molecules, poor conductors-molecules are neutral
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What is a dative covalent bond?
Covalent bonding in which both the electrons in the bond come from one atom in the bond
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What's a lone pair?
A pair of electrons in the outer shell of an atom that is not involved in bodning
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Give an example of cordinate bonding?
The ammonium ion
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What is electronegativity?
The power of an atom to attract electron denisty to itself in a covalent bond
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What 3 factors does elctronegativity depend on?
Nuclear charge, distance between nucleus, shielding
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What are the trends in electronegativity?
Increases up the groups and across period
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What are the 3 most electronegative atoms?
Flourine, oxygen, nitrogen
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What is the polarity of molecules where the atoms are the same e.g.F2?
The electrons must be shared equally, as atoms have the exact same electronegativity, the bond is non polar
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Is H-F a polar bond?
True
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What is metallic bonding?
Electrostatic attraction between positive ions and delocalised electrons
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What are the properties of metals?
Electrical conductors, conductors of heat(ions are closely packed together), strong, malleable(layers move over eachother), high melting point
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What does a metals strength depend on?
Greater the charge of the ion, the smaller the ion,closer electrons are to the positive nucleus
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What are the 3 types of intermolecular bonds?
Van de Waals, Dipole-Dipole and Hydrogen Bonding
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What molecules do dipole-dipole forces act between?
Moelcules with a permenant dipole, e.g. Hydrogenchloride- chlorine is more negative than hydrogen
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What are van de Waals forces?
An intermolecular force cause by instantaneous dipoles which acts between all atoms and molecules
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What are the instantaneous dipoles caused by in van de Waals forces?
Changing positions of electrons
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Why do larger molecules have more van de Waals forces?
Because there are more elctrons
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What is needed for hydrogen bonding?
A hydrogen atom bonded to a very electronegative atom and a very electronegative atom with a lone pair
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Describe the boiling point for molecules containing hydrogen bonding?
Very high
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Why is ice less dense than water?
The molecules in ice are slightly less closely packed than in liquid water
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2 examples of hydrogen bonding in life?
DNA and Ironing
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What are diamond and graphite example of?
Macromolecular crystals
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If there is 2 pairs of electrons on the outside, what's the shape name and bond angle?
Linear, 180
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If there is 3 pairs of electrons on the outside, what's the shape name and bond angle?
Trigonal planar, 120
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If there is 4 pairs of electrons on the outside, what's the shape name and bond angle?
Tetrahedral, 109.5
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If there is 5 pairs of electrons on the outside, what's the shape name and bond angle?
Trigonal bypyramid, 120 and 90
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If there is 6 pairs of electrons on the outside, what's the shape name and bond angle?
Octahedral, 90
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How many degrees do you take away from a bond angle per lone pair?
2.5
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Card 2

Front

What is ionic bonding?

Back

Electrostatic attraction between oppistely charged ions

Card 3

Front

What do ionic compounds always exsist as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Waht are the properties of ionic compounds?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does covalent boding occur between?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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