Bonding

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 04-04-16 12:52
What are the three types of bonding?
Ionic, covalent (including coordinate) and metallic bonding.
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What is the cause of bonding?
The positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons are arranged in a way that the electrostatic attractions outweigh the repulsion's.
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What is covalent bonding?
A covalent bond has a pair of electrons with opposed spins shared between two atoms with each atom giving one electron.
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What happens in covalent bonding?
Each atom gives one electron to form a bond pair in which the electron spins are opposed.
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What is coordinate bonding?
A coordinate bond is a covalent bond in which both electrons come from one of the atoms
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What happens in coordinate bonding?
This is the same as a covalent bond except that both electrons which form the bond pair come from the same atom
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What is ionic bonding?
A ionic bond is a bond formed by the electrical attraction between the positive and negative ions (cations and anions)
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What happens in ionic bonding?
One atom gives one or more electrons to the other and the resulting cation (+) and anion (-) attract one another electrically. It normally forms a lattice in which each cation is surrounded by several.
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What does bonding result from?
Electrical attractions and repulsions between the protons and electrons, with attractions outweighing repulsions.
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What happens in covalent bonds?
The electrons in the pair between the atoms repel one another but this is overcome by their attractions to both nuclei
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What happens if atoms get too close together?
If atoms get too close together the nuclei and the inner electrons will repel those of the other atom so the bond has a certain length.
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What must happen for the bonds to form?
The electron spins must be opposite for the bonds to form
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How are cations and anions arranged in ionic bonding?
They're arranged so that each cation is surrounded by several anions and vice versa in order to maximise attraction and minimise repulsion.
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What do repulsions prevent?
Repulsions from inner electrons and nuclei prevent the ions from getting too close together.
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What does metallic bonding consist of?
Metallic bonding consists of a lattice of positive ions held together by a 'sea' of delocalised electrons given up by each atom.
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What happens to the bond when one atom takes up a slightly negative charge and the other slightly positive?
The bond is now said to be polar. The charges are written as δ+ and δ-
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What bonds are always polar?
Coordinate bonds are always polar as the atom giving both electrons to the bond can't completely lose its right over one electron.
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What is electronegativity?
Electronegativity is a measure of the electron-attracting power of an atom in a covalent bond.
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What is intermolecular bonding?
Intermolecular bonding is the weak bonding holding the molecules together, e.g as in liquids and governs the physical properties of the substance.
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What is intramolecular bonding?
Intramolecular bonding is the strong bonding betwen the atoms int he molecule and governs its chemistry.
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What are Van deer Waals forces?
Van deer Waals forces include all types of intermolcular force whether dipole or induced dipole.
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What is intermolecular bonding?
Intermolecular bonding is weak and governs physical properties.
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What's stronger, bonding inside molecules or between them?
Bonding inside molecules is some 100 times stronger than between them with van der Waals strength being around 3kJmol-1
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What is hydrogen bonding?
Hydrogen bonding is a special intermolecular bonding force that only occurs between molecules that contain hydrogen atoms bonded to very electronegative elements having lone pairs.
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What's the strength of hydrogen bonds?
The typical strength for hydrogen bonds are 30kJ per mol against 3kJ for van der WAals and 300kJ for bonding within molecules.
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Why is hydrogen bonding stronger than van deer Waals?
It's stronger than van der Waals as the small hydrogen atom is sandwiched between two electronegative elements and allows a close approach.
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What do melting and boiling temperatures increase with?
The strength of intermolecular forces
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What is the repulsion sequence?
lone pair-lone pair > lone pair-bond pair > bond pair-bond pair
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What does VSEPR stand for?
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
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What does the VSEPR therry do?
It lets us predict the shape of simple molecules in which bonded atoms are arranged around a central atom.
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What shape is the molecule if it has 2 pairs?
It's a linear shape and has a bond angle of 180
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What shape is the molecule if it has 3 pairs?
It's a trigonal planar shape and has a bond angle of 120
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What shape is the molecule if it has 4 pairs?
It's a tetrahedral shape and has a bond angle of 109.5
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What shape is the molecule if it has 5 pairs?
It's a trigonal bipyramid shape and has a bond angle of 90/120
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What shape is the molecule if it has 6 pairs?
It's a octrahedral shape and has a bond angle of 90
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the cause of bonding?

Back

The positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons are arranged in a way that the electrostatic attractions outweigh the repulsion's.

Card 3

Front

What is covalent bonding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens in covalent bonding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is coordinate bonding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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