Bioterror

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  • Created by: Amh
  • Created on: 13-04-16 14:42
What defines a cat A agent
1.it can easily disseminate/be transmitted from person to person 2. high mortality 3. causes public panic 4. require special action for public health
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What are some cat A diseases
Anthrax, smallpox, botulism, plague, tularaemia, ebola
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What causes anthrax
bacillus anthracis
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What causes small pox
variola virus
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What causes botulism
clostridium botulinum
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What causes the plague
Yersinia pestis
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What causes tuleraemia
franciella tularensis
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What are some cat B agents
Q fever, brucellosis, Ricin and toxins
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what defines a cat B agent
1.. less easily disseminated, less morbidity and mortality, requires specific diagnostic care
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What defines a cat c agent
emerging pathogens that could be enginered for mass dissemination, more easily availablem, can be modified for virulence
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Give an example of a cat c path
yellow fever MDRTB hantavirus
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Does bacilus anthracis sporulate?
yes
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Other characteristics of bacilus anthracis
gram positive rod, spores in soils, can lie dormant as a spore
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Why is its ability to lie dormant as a spore important
Key to dissemination and therefore being a successful bioterrorist agent
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Who is most likely to get anthrax
slaughterhouse workers - hoofed mammals are prone to bacilus anthracis
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How is bacillus anthracis transmitted
1. Cutaneously via contact with spores. 2. via inhalation of spores , 3. via GI ingestion of spores
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outline cutaneous anthrax
spore enters an abrasion, symptoms develop 1-7 days, then lesion goes through stages papule to ulcer to vesicle to black eschar
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How quickly do symptoms develop in cutaneous anthrax
within 1-7 days no latency period
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What are the stages of cutaneous anthrax
Papule ulcer vesicle to a black eschar
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How does inhalational anthrax come about
inhalation of spores
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What are the clinical stages of inhalational anthrax
1st stage is flu like symptoms. 2nd is breathing difficulty, shock, meningitis 50%
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outline bacilus anthrax
larger spores lodge in throat and windpipe and others germinate between 1-60days, this produces toxins which cause tissue death and haemorrhage
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what are the outcomes of anthrax
cutaneous 10% mortality - 1% mortality with treatment. Inhalational fatal
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How do you diagnose Anthrax
Chest X Ray will show widened mediastinum, peripheral blood smear, blood cultures, and CSF cultures, ound cultures and post mortem
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How do you treat anthrax
Ciprofloxacin (and other antibiotics from sensitivity tests) 60days treatment
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Can we treat prophylacticly
yes with ciprofloxacin or doxycycline
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what is small pox due to
variola virus
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Is variola virus ds / ** RNA/DNA
ds DNA virus
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When was small pox erradicated?
1977
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Where are the small pox stocks
USA and RUSSIA
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How is small pox spread
person to person by slaiva
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When are people most infectious
from the onset of rash through first 7-10 days
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When does the risk of transmission end
when the scabs fall off
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What are the clinical features of small pox
signs and symptoms typically develop within 7-17 days , acute onset of high fever fatigue head and backaches, 22 days later rash appears
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what is the fatality percent
33%
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what does the rash look like
flat red lesions macules papules progress to pus-y one's called vesicles, lesion begins to crust in the secund week
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how do you diagnose small pox
lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia,,whole blood 4 pcr, antigen detection, vesicle fluid for EM or PCR,
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how do you manage smallpox
infectious disease team, immune staff, strict protective clothing, no specific treatment, vaccine contact
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What is the death due to
toxaemia and immune complexes from viral antigens
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What is botulism due to
a neurotoxin produced by clostridium botulinum
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what are the 3 forms of naturally
foodbourne, wound and infant
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how quickly do signs and symptoms develop
24-72 hours
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What are the symptoms of botulism
bulbar muscle paralysis, (double vision blurred speech drooping eyelids difficulty swallowing) progression to paralysis, respiratory failure death
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What does botulism depend on
rate and amount of toxin absorbed ``
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how do you diagnose botulism
classical triad; symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis with bulbar palsy, afebrile patient, clear sensorium. Toxin assay; blood, stool, gastric aspirate
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what is the treatment for botulism
botulinum antitoxin
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What are the chaacteristics of Yersinia pestis
gram negative rod
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What are the forms of Yersinia pestis
Bubonic, primary septicaemic, secondary pneumonic
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where does the plague occur
south west usa
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how is plaguetransmitted
person to person by respiratory droplets
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What are the clinical features of pneumonic plague
incubation 2-4 days, fever cough difficulty breathing and haemoptysis, GI symptoms, pneumonia
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How do you diagnose oneumonic plaque
chest x ray, gram stain, culture of sputum, blood, lymph nodes
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What is tularaemia caused by
Francisella tularensis
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what are the characteristics of Francisella tularensis
gram negative, coccobacilus
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What are the 5 forms of the isease
ulceroglandular, glandular, pleuopulmonary, typhoidal, oropharyngeal
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How can transmission occur naturally
tick bites, exposure to infected animals, ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation of infetious aerosols
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when was tularaemia used as a weapon
by soviet union in 1970s
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what are the clinical features off tularemia
acute onset of febrile illness, but respiratory symptoms do not usually predominate
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How do you diagnose tularemia
chest x ray, culture sputum blood pleural fluid, serology
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Card 2

Front

What are some cat A diseases

Back

Anthrax, smallpox, botulism, plague, tularaemia, ebola

Card 3

Front

What causes anthrax

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What causes small pox

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What causes botulism

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Preview of the front of card 5
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