Biopsychology-Neurons

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  • Created by: Anca.a
  • Created on: 04-04-18 16:25
What is the cell body on a neuron?
Cell body contains a nucleus, containing the genetic material for the cell.
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What are dendrites?
branch like structures that protrude from the cell body.
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What is the axon?
carries the impulse away from the cell body down the length of the neuron
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What is the axon covered in?
It's covered in a fatty layer of myelin sheath that protects the axon and speeds up the transmission of the impulse.
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What is the myelin sheath segmented by?
Gaps called Nodes of Ranvier that speed up the transmission of an impulse by forcing it to jump across the gaps along the axon.
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What is at the end of the axon?
Terminal buttons that communicate with the next neuron in the chain across the synapse.
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What do sensory neurons do?
They carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. They have long dendrites and and short axons.
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What do relay neurons do?
They connect sensory neurons to motor or other relay neurons. They have short dendrites and short axons.
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What do motor neurons do?
These connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. They have short dendrites and long axons.
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What is a neuron like at resting state?
Inside of cell is negatively charged compared to the outside.
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What is a neuron like when activated by a stimulus?
The inside of the cell becomes positively charged for a split second causing an action potential to occur.This creates an electric impulse that travels down the axon towards the end of the neuron.
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Signals within the neuron are transmitted electrically, however signals between molecules neurons are transmitted...
...chemically across the synapse.
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1st step of synaptic transmission:
Action potential reaches axon terminal(terminal buttons)
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2nd step of synaptic transmission:
Calcium channels open
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3rd step of synaptic transmission:
Calcium ions causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter
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4th step of synaptic transmission:
Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse
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5th step of synaptic transmission:
Neurotransmitter binds to neuroreceptors
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6th step of synaptic transmission:
This triggers a signal in the post-synaptic neuron. Here the chemical message is converted back into an electrical impulse and the process of transmission begins again.
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What is the structure of the neurotransmitter like?
Each neurotransmitter has its own specific molecular structure that fits into a post synaptic receptor site(like a lock and key) They also all have individual special functions.
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What does it mean when a neurotransmitter has an excitatory effect on a neuron?
A neurotransmitter like adrenaline causes excitation of the post synaptic neuron by increasing the positive charge and making it more likely to fire.
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What does it mean when a neurotransmitter has an inhibitory effect on a neuron?
eg. the neurotransmitter serotonin causes inhibition in the receiving neuron, resulting in the neuron becoming more negatively charged and less likely to fire.
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What does serotonin do?
It's a neurotransmitter that possesses diverse functions in the body, like control of appetite, sleep, memory & learning, muscle contraction etc. and is produced in the pineal gland.
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What does acetylcholine do?
Plays an important role both in learning and memory and sending messages from motor nerves to muscles. Also effects glands.There is a marked deficiency of acetylcholine in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's. Found in the CNS & PNS.
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What has increased understanding of neurotransmitters helped us to do?
It has led to the development of psychoactive drugs to treat mental disorders
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Example of psychoactive drug:
depression has been linked to a lack of serotonin, which is though to help stabilising mood.A type of drug known as SSRI's slow down the reuptake of serotonin ensuring it stays active for longer in the brain.
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What is summation?
when nervous impulses add together to reach the threshold of neuron excitation.
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Card 2

Front

What are dendrites?

Back

branch like structures that protrude from the cell body.

Card 3

Front

What is the axon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the axon covered in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the myelin sheath segmented by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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