Biology Topic 4

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Define respiration.
The process of releasing energy from glucose, which happens constantly in every living cell. The chemical energy is used to do things like create large molecules from smaller ones and contract muscles. The heat energy helps maintain body heat.
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Give the equations for aerobic respiration.
Glucose + oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + water + (Energy). C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + (ATP)
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What is the equation for anaerobic respiration in humans?
Glucose -> Lactic acid (+ energy)
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What is the equation for anaerobic respiration in plants?
Glucose -> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + (Energy).
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How do you detect the production of CO2 using a hydrogen-carbonate indicator?
Soak dried beans in water for a day or two, they will germinate and thus will respire. Boil similar-sized second bunch of beans, killing them. Place H.C.I. into two test tubes. Platform made of gauze in each tube, place beans on this.
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How do you detect the production of CO2 using a hydrogen-carbonate indicator? (2)
Seal tubes with rubber bung. Leave for a set of time, during that time the CO2 produced should have had an effect on H.C.I. Orange -> Yellow when there is CO2.
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How do you measure the heat produced by respiration?
Two sets of beans, add to a vacuum flask (some air left in each- respire aerobically). Thermometer in each flask, seal top with cotton wool. Record temp daily for a week, germinating beans respire and produce heat, increasing temp of flask.
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How do plants exchange gases?
Diffusion. Plant photosynthesises- use CO2, produce O2. Respires- use O2, produce CO2.
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How does the net exchange of gases depend on light intensity?
Photosynthesis only happens during the day, have to respire all the time. Day- make more O2 by P, than use in R- so release O2, use more CO2 than produce. Night- only R- take in O2, release CO2.
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How are leaves adapted for efficient gas exchange?
Broad, large S.A for diffusion. Thin, gases only have to travel a short distance. Air spaces inside leaf, gases move easily between cells. Stomata- transpiration. Movement of stomata controlled by guard cells.
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What does Hydrogen Carbonate Indicator show?
Changes in CO2 concentration. Normal CO2 concentration= orange. Increase= yellow. Decrease= purple.
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How do you use H.C.I. to show differences in net gas exchange in plants?
Same volume of H.C.I. to four tubes. Similar-sized healthy looking leaves into three, seal with rubber bung. Trap leaf stem with bung, stop falling into solution. Wrap one in aluminium foil, second in gauze.In bright light, check colour of indicator
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What should the colours of these tubes be?
No change in control tube. Aluminium foil tube- yellow (no photosynthesis bc no light). Guaze, similar. Well-lit- purple (more photosynthesis than respiration).
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Where are the lungs and what are they like?
Thorax. Separated from lower body by the diaphragm. Lungs are protected by the ribcage, and surrounded by pleural membranes. Air breathed in goes through the trachea (splits into 2 tubes-bronchi, one to each lung). Bronchioles end with alveoli.
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What happens when you breath in?
Intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract. Thorax volume increases, decreases the pressure drawing air in.
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What happens when you breath out?
Intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax. Thorax volume decreases, air is forced out.
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How do you investigate the effect of exercise on breathing rate?
Sit for five mins- count number of breaths. Four mins of exercise- count breaths for a minute. Exercise increases breathing rate, muscles respire more, more O2 needed, more CO2 needed to be removed.
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What is the role of alveoli?
To carry out gas exchange in the body. The blood passing next to them contains a lot of CO2 and very little O2, O2 diffuses out of the alveolus into the blood. CO2 out of blood into alveolus.
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How are alveoli specialised for gas exchange?
Enormous surface area. Moist lining for gasses to dissolve in. Thin walls, great blood supply, permeable.0
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What problems can smoking tobacco cause?
Damages the walls inside the alveoli, reducing the surface area, leading to diseases like Emphysema. Tar damages the cilia, which catches dust and bacteria before it gets to the lung. Irritates the bronchi, coughs. Carbon monoxide, reduces O2.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give the equations for aerobic respiration.

Back

Glucose + oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + water + (Energy). C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + (ATP)

Card 3

Front

What is the equation for anaerobic respiration in humans?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the equation for anaerobic respiration in plants?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you detect the production of CO2 using a hydrogen-carbonate indicator?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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