# Biology Revision

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• Created by: pvibrans
• Created on: 17-05-15 14:50
Give the definition for: biotic.
a living organism in a habitat.
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Give the definition for: abiotic.
non-living factors in a habitat.
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What is random sampling used for?
to count the number of organisms in a particular place.
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What are the first 4 steps of random sampling?
1) Place two tape measures perpendicular to each other. 2) Use a random number generator to get coordinates. 3)Place the quadrats at the coordinates. 4) Count the number of each species in the quadrats.
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What are the next 4 steps of random sampling?
5) Repeat 9 times. 6) Calculate a mean number for each species. 7) Find the area of the field and see how many quadrats fit into it. 8) Multiply by your mean the number of plants.
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Can you think of two abiotic factors that could affect the distribution of plant species along a transect?
temperature, light intensity, moisture, CO2 concentration, humidity, tidal flow (water), soil pH etc.
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When using the method random sampling, why would you place your quadrat at a large number of coordinates?
More reliable/reproducable results.
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A feature which makes it possible for an organism to survive in it's particular habitat.
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The way in which organisms are shaped or coloured e.g. camouflage.
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Give the definition for: Independent variable.
Is the factor that you are changing/investigating.
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Give the definition for: Dependent variable.
Is the factor you are measuring/the results.
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Give the definition for: Habitat.
a place in which an organism lives.
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Give the definition for: control variables.
The variables that you keep the same otherwise you wouldn't know what was causing a change in the dependent variable - to have a fair test.
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Give the definition for: competition.
where an organism strives for a limited resource e.g. food, mate, territory, light, water or space.
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Give the definition for: extremophile.
organisms that survive and reproduce in the most difficult conditions. e.g. bacteria can survive at a temperature between 45 and 85 degrees Celsius, or survive at temperatures as low as -15 degrees Celsius.
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What do plants often compete with each other for?
Light, space, water and nutrients.
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What do animals often compete with each other for?
Food, mates and territory.
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Give the definition for: a tissue.
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and functions.
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Give the definition for: an organ.
Organs are made of tissues. One organ may contain several tissues.
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Give the definition for: an organ system.
Organ systems are groups of organs that perform a particular function.
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Put these in order of size, smallest to largest: organ, tissue, cell, organ system
Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems.
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Name the three types of animal tissues.
Muscular tissue, Glandular tissue, Epithelial tissue.
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What can muscular tissue do?
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What can glandular tissue do?
Produce substances such as enzymes and hormones.
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What can epithelial tissue do?
Cover and protect some parts of the body.
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Describe why the stomach is an organ.
It contains muscular tissue, to allow contents to move through the digestive system; glandular tissue, to produce digestive juices; epithelial tissue, to cover the outside and inside of the stomach.
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Name the five parts of the digestive system and explain what each part does.
The digestive system includes: glands, produce digestive juices; stomach, digestion occurs; liver, produces bile; small intestine, soluble food is absorbed; the large intestine, water is absorbed from undigested food.
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Name the 4 examples of plant tissues and their functions.
Epidermal tissues, which cover the plant; Palisade mesophyll, which carries out photosynthesis; Spongy mesophyll, which has air spaces to facilitate diffusion of gases; xylem and phloem, which transports substances around the plant.
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Name the plant organs.
Plant organs include stem, roots and leaves.
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What is the function and adaptation of a xylem cell?
To transport water through the plant; made of dead cells so that it is hollow and less resistance to water movement.
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What is the function and adaptation of a Muscle cell?
To allow you to move; elongated and many mitochondria to release energy.
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What is the function and adaptation of a sperm cell?
Fertilise the egg; has a tail for swimming, many mitochondria and mainly nucleus.
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Substances move in and out of cells by ______, but this can only happen over a _____ distance. In larger animals, a _____ system is needed to bring _____ and ______ to the cells, and to remove waste ___ and ______ from the cells.
diffusion, short, transport, glucose, oxygen, CO2, water.
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Why is the upper epidermis in a leaf transparent?
It allows light to pass through it to the pallisade layer of tissue where photosynthesis can take place.
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What is the function of this plant organ: Leaf?
Photosynthesis, Nutrition, Gas Exchange - stomata and guard cells.
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What is the function of this plant organ: Flower?
Reproduction - ovules, seeds.
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What is the function of this plant organ: Stem?
Transport, Xylem - water from roots to leaves, Phloem - transport sugar from leaves to rest of plant, Support.
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What is the function of this plant organ: Roots?
Nutients - minerals, irons, water, Anchoring.
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Give the definition of: mutation.
A change in the DNA in the nucleus (or string of DNA) of a cell.
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Give the definition of: immunisation.
Protecting your body against a pathogen/disease before they come into contact.
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Give the definition of: vaccination.
Injection of dead/inactive pathogens of a virus you are trying to prevent. WBC respond more quickly before you become immune.
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Give the definition of: antibiotic resistance.
The ability of a pathogen to be resistant towards an antibiotic. Some develop a mutation in order to become resistant.
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Give the definition of: antibiotic.
a drug or compound which destroys bacteria. (NOT virus)
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Give the definition of: pathogen.
a micro-organism which causes disease.
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Give the definition of: toxin.
a toxic that pathogens release which causes disease.
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Give the definition of: antibody.
special types of proteins that are complementary to the shape of a specific antigen.
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Give the definition of: antitoxin.
Neutralises poison/toxin.
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How do bacteria make us ill?
They make us feel ill by entering our body, reproducing and then releasing substances called toxins.
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How do viruses make us ill?
They enter our cells and reproduce inside our cells. They then burst out of the cell, damaging it.
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What are the three things that White Blood Cells do to defend our bodies against diseases?
Ingesting and destroying micro-organisms, Producing antibodies and Producing antitoxins which neutralise the toxins released by the pathogen.
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What do antibodies do to help defend our bodies from diseases?
The antibodies are a complementary shape to the antigens on the pathogens so they can target and destroy them. Once your WBCs have produced antibodies against a particular pathogen, they can produce them more rapidly if the pathogen invades again.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Give the definition for: abiotic.

#### Back

non-living factors in a habitat.

### Card 3

#### Front

What is random sampling used for?

### Card 4

#### Front

What are the first 4 steps of random sampling?

### Card 5

#### Front

What are the next 4 steps of random sampling?