Biology Revision

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  • Created by: plu10710
  • Created on: 26-03-14 17:52
What is the metabolic rate?
The speed at which chemical reactions take place in the body
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What is a feature of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)?
They carry cholesterol from the liver to the cells of the body
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What is it best to have for a healthy heart?
A high proportion of HDL compared to LDL
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What is a pathogen?
A disease-causing microorganism
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What is one of the main problems with bacteria?
They produce toxins
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What is one of the main problems with viruses?
They damage the host cell when they reproduce
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What is one of the functions of white blood cells?
To ingest and destroy pathogens
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What is one of the functions of antibodies?
To lock on to antigens
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What does passive immunity involve?
Receiving antibodies
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How do antibiotics work?
They can stop bacteria from reproducing
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What can vaccination involve?
Injecting an inactive form of the pathogen to stimulate immunity
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Why is it important to use antibiotics carefully?
So we do not over-use them as dangerous strains of resistant bacteria may develop by natural selection
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What is the eye an example of?
A sense organ
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Which type of neurone transmits a signal from a sense organ to the central nervous system?
The sensory neurone
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Which type of neuron transmits a signal from the central nervous system to an effector such as a muscle?
The motor neurone
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What is a synapse?
A junction between two neurones
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Which part of the nervous system is not involved in producing reflex actions?
The brain
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What are hormones?
Chemicals secreted by glands
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How are hormones transported around the body?
In the bloodstream
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What part of the body secretes FSH?
The pituitary gland
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What part of the body secretes oestrogen?
The ovaries
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What is the function of the hormone LH?
LH causes a mature egg to be released
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Oral contraceptives are likely to contain which hormones?
Oestrogen and progesterone
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Which hormones may be used in fertility treatment?
FSH and LH
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Shoots are...
...positively phototropic but negatively gravitropic
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Roots are...
...negatively phototropic but positively gravitropic
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What are auxins?
Plant hormones that move through the plant in solution
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What does phototropism involve a response to?
Light
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Where are auxins made in a plant?
In the growing tip of a shoot or root
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Which side of a shoot contains more auxin?
The shaded side of a shoot
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What side grows more, either the top or bottom side, when a root bends in the direction of the force of gravity?
Top side
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What is the feature of a double blind trial?
Doctors and patients don't know if the drug ir real - either placebo or actual drug
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What do stimulants do to the body?
Improve muscle development
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What is alcohol an example of?
A depressant
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Herion and cocaine are both...
...Highly addictive
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Why was thalidomide banned?
It caused birth defects
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What is the addictive substance in alcohol?
Ethanol
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Name one short-term effect that is caused by excessive alcohol intake?
Slurred speech
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What is meant by the word population?
All the members of a single species that live in a habitat
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What do plants not compete for?
Food
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Why are polar bear white?
To camouflage them so their prey cannot see them
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What is the most likely reason why animals in hot climates have bigger ears than similar animals in cold conditions?
Big ears lose heat quickly, while small ears lose heat slowly
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What is the most likely reason why bees and wasps have black and yellow stripes?
The stripes warn other animals that bees and wasps are dangerous
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What do plants compete for?
Water, light and nutriens
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Organisms that are tolerant to high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures are called what?
Extremophiles
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The mayfly larva needs clean water to survive. This means it can be used as a what?
An indicator species for water pollution
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How do lichens indicate levels of air pollution?
Lichens cannot grow at all in very polluted air
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What is an advantage of using a temperature probe and datalogger, rather than a thermometer?
It records the temperature automatically
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In a food web, what do the arrows represent?
Energy transfer
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Using source A, which organism is a producer?
Pondweed
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Using source A, what is the longest food chain in this food web?
Four trophic levels
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Using source A, for this particular food web a pyramid of biomass would be widest...
...at the bottom
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In a certain food chain, 20% of the energy from the first trophic level to the second on, so...
...the efficiency of energy transfer is 20%
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Using source B, what processes are shown by the letters A,B and C?
A is respiration, B is photosynthesis, and C is decay
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Decay happens faster when the conditions are...
...warm and moist
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Why do materials decay?
They are digested by microorganisms
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What does the nucleus of a cell contain?
Chromosomes
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What do chromosomes carry?
Genes
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What type of factor is involved in determining body mass?
Body mass can be determined by both environmental and inherited factors
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What type of factor is involved in determining language?
Environmental factors
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What type of factor is involved in determining eye colour?
Inherited factors
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Where in one of a body's cells are chromosomes found?
Nucleus
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What is genetic information carried by?
DNA
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In humans, what are the male gametes called?
Sperm
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In the course of reproduction, when does fertilisation happen?
When a male and female gamete join
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How many parents does asexual reproduction need?
One
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What is one andvantage of taking cuttings from plants?
New, genetically identical plants can be grown quickly and cheaply
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Which cloning technique is suitable for amateur gardeners to do?
Taking cuttings
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Where can the donor nucleus come from in adult cell cloning?
A skin cell
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What sort of organisms can be genetically engineered?
Plants and animals
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According to Darwin's theory of evolution, how do new species evolve?
By natural selection
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Which individuals are most likely to survive to reproduce?
Those that are well suited to their environment
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What is likely to happen to an individual that is poorly suited to its environment?
It will not survive to reproduce
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What sort of variation is inherited?
Genetic variation
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Why are white peppered moths likely to be more common than black peppered moths in country areas?
White peppered moths are more difficult for birds to see on clean birch bark
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Which is one of the reasons why Lamarck's theory of evolution was discredited?
It could not explain why simple organisms continue to exist on Earth
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a feature of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)?

Back

They carry cholesterol from the liver to the cells of the body

Card 3

Front

What is it best to have for a healthy heart?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a pathogen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is one of the main problems with bacteria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

lisa linsdell

A comprehensive set of revision cards that cover various aspects of Biology such as: the immune system, hormones, auxins, drugs, adaptations and indicator species.  Use the crossword facility to check understanding.

stu(dying)

Is this biology1 or 2

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