Biology - Paper 2 Specification

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IMPORTANCE OF TURGID PLANT CELLS
They support the structure of the plant and if flaccid, the plant shrinks and begins to die
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BALANCED DIET
Include appropriate portions of: CARBOHYDRATE/PROTEIN/LIPID/VITAMINS/MINERALS/WATER/DIETARY FIBRE
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ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
ACTIVITY LEVELS, AGE, PREGNANCY determine the amount
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RESPIRATION- CO2 + O2
Respiration continues day and night / net exchange of CO2 + O2 depend on light intensity
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PHLOEM
Transports sucrose and amino acids between the leaves and other parts of the plant
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VACCINATION
Results in the manufacture of memory cells - ensure future antibody production to the pathogen to occur sooner - faster and in greater quantity
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PLATELETS
Involved in blood clotting - which prevents blood loss and entry of microoragnisms
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EYE FUNCTION- LIGHT INTENSITY
BRIGHT = smaller pupil / DIM = enlarged pupil
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EYE FUNCTION- FOCUS
NEAR = ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments go slack / FAR = ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments pull tight
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TEMPERATURE REGULATION
Heat in the body is lost through SWEATING and VASODILATION
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VASODILATION
Relaxation of muscle within the wall of a blood vessle - brings them close to the skin so heat can be lost / decrease in vascular resistance
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VASOCONSTRICTION
Contraction of muscle within the wall of a blood vessle - draws vessle away from the skin and keeps heat within body / increase in vascular resistance
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CONDITIONS NEEDED FOR SEED GERMINATION
WARMTH= enzyme efficiency WATER= chemical reactions taking place in solution OXYGEN=respiration to provide energy
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GERMINATION = UTILISATION OF FOOD RESERVES
COTYLEDONS (seed leaves) act as a food source.
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ROLE OF PLACENTA
Passes FOOD and OXYGEN from the mother to the developing fetus / Takes CO2 and UREA from fetus to mother
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AMNIOTIC FLUID
The baby is PROTECTED by amniotic fluid. It cushions it as it develops
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DOMINANT
Character they code shows in appearance of individual, WHETHER 1 OR 2 ALLELES are inherited
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RECESSIVE
Character they code shows in appearance of individual, ONLY IF ALLELE IS PRESENT ON BOTH CHROMOSOMES
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HOMOZYGOUS
Both ALLELES are the SAME
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HETEROZYGOUS
TWO DIFFERENT ALLELES
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PHENOTYPE
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS with respect to genotype
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GENOTYPE
DESCRIBES ALLELES that a cell or organism has for a PARTICULAR FEATURE
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CODOMINANCE
When NEITHER ALLELE IS DOMINANT and BOTH CONTRIBUTE to the appearance of the offspring
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RADIATION & CHEMICALS = MUTATION
Mutations can be increased by exposure to IONISING RADIATION (gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet) and some CHEMICAL MUTAGENTS(in tobacco)
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POLLUTION OF WATER BY SEWAGE - BIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES
Can cause a lack of oxygen in water. This is called EUTROPHICATION. It also increases the number of microorganisms. Animals cannot survive in it
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YOGHURT PRODUCTION
Lactobacillus ferments the sugar Lactose, into Lactic Acid
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TRANSGENIC
The transfer of genetic material from one species to a different species
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POTENTIAL FOR CLONED TRANSGENIC ANIMALS
can produce commercial quantities of human antibodies or organ transplantation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Include appropriate portions of: CARBOHYDRATE/PROTEIN/LIPID/VITAMINS/MINERALS/WATER/DIETARY FIBRE

Back

BALANCED DIET

Card 3

Front

ACTIVITY LEVELS, AGE, PREGNANCY determine the amount

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Respiration continues day and night / net exchange of CO2 + O2 depend on light intensity

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Transports sucrose and amino acids between the leaves and other parts of the plant

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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