Biology: Chapter 2

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What does the central nervous system consist of?
The brain and spinal cord only
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What are sense organs?
They detect stimuli
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Name the sense organs
eyes, ears, tongue, nose, skin
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What is a stimulus?
Is a change in the enviroment
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What is a change in the environment called?
Stimulus
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What is the eye an example of?
A sense organ
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What is the sensory neurones?
The nerve cells that carry signals as electrical impluses from receptors to the spinal cord and brain
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What is the relay neurones?
The nerve cells that carry signals from the sensory neurones to the motor neurones
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What is motor neurone?
The nerve cells that carry signals from the central nervous system to the effectors (muscles and glands)
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What are effectors?
The effector is the gland or muscle that causes the response, instructed by the nervous system
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What are the different types of effectors in the body?
Glands and muscles
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Which type of neurone transmits a signal from the central nervous system to an effector such as a muscle?
Motor neurone
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Which type of neurone transmits a signal from a sense organ to the central nervous system?
Sensory neurone
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What is a synapse?
The connection between two neurones
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How does the synapse work?
One neurone releases the chemical into the gap. The chemical diffuses across the gap and makes the next neurone transmit an electrical signal.
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What are reflexes?
Reflex is an automatic response to stimuli
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Why does a reflex occur?
To prevent injury
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Say the reflex arc
stimulus → receptor → sensory neurone → relay neurone → motor neurone → effector → response
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Which part of the central nervous system is not involved in producing reflex actions?
Brain
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What are hormones?
Hormones are chemical messengers sent which travel in the blood to activate target cells
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How are hormones transported around the body?
In the blood
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What produces hormones?
Glands
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What are the effects of hormones? In terms of duration
Long lasting effects
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What are the three main differences between hormones and nerves
Nerves are: Very fast message, act for a very short time, act on a specific area. Hormones are: Slower message, act for a long time, act on a more general area
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If a response lasts long its a?
Hormones
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If the response is really quick its a?
Nevous
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are sense organs?

Back

They detect stimuli

Card 3

Front

Name the sense organs

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a stimulus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a change in the environment called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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