Biology Chapter One

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  • Biology B2: Chapter One
    • Cells
      • Animal cells
        • nucleus: contains gene material
        • cytoplasm: gel-like.  chemical reaction place
        • cell membrane: holds cell together. controls what goes in n out
        • Mitochondria = reactions for respiration take place, releases energy
        • Ribosomes = where protein synthesis takes place
      • Plant cells
        • Cell Wall = supports and strengthens. cellulose
        • Vacuole = contains cell sap, weak solution of sugar n salts
        • Chloroplast= Photosynthsis occur, contain chlorophyll
    • Special cells
      • R Blood cells
        • Concave shape = big surface area for absorbing oxygen
        • No nucleus = more room for hemoglobin?
      • Bacteria cell
        • Carries out all 7characterist of life - MRS GREN
        • Cytoplasm, cell wall, no nucleus, plasmids,
      • Yeast cells
        • ten times the size of a bacterium)
        • nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, a vacuole, cell wall & membrane
      • Sperm and Egg cells
        • Egg = Huge food reserves to feed the embryo
        • Sperm = Long tail + streamlined head + lots of mitochondria
    • Diffusion
      • Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high conc to an area of low conc.
      • both liquids and gases
      • bigger the difference of concentration = faster the diffusion rate
      • Cell mem: Holds cell together, particles in n out, small particles diffuse thro
      • Rate of diffusion depends on: Distance = not far Concentration difference. Big S.A = more S.A
    • Photsynthesis
      • Carbon Dioxide + Water (Sunlight) --> Glucose + Oxygen
      • Photosynthsis = Process produces food for plants
      • Happens inside chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll that absorb sunlight
      • Light: from the sun?
      • Chlorophyll: substance found in chloroplasts?
      • Co2: diffuse from the air into leaf?
      • Water: from soil up roots / stem into leaf
    • Limit factors
      • Too little Co2
        • Raw material needed for photosynthsis
        • Increased amount of CO2 = rate
        • In lab = dissolve sodim- hydro carbnte=Co2
      • Not enough light
        • Light provides energy for photosynthsis
        • Increased light = rate
        • In a lab = moving a lamp closer, further away
      • ??Greenhouse = trap sun's heat + keeps pests / diseases out?Artificial light = photosynthsis can happen at night?          C02 = paraffin heater  = Co2
      • Temperature has to be just right
        • Too Cold - work slowly
        • Plant too hot - enzymes are denatured
        • The temp affects the enzymes needed for photosynthsis
  • Temperature has to be just right
    • Too Cold - work slowly
    • Plant too hot - enzymes are denatured
    • The temp affects the enzymes needed for photosynthsis

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