Biology B6 OCR Gateway 2013

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  • Created by: Elisabeth
  • Created on: 08-06-13 18:47
What do bacteria have which stops them from bursting and help keep there shape?
Cell wall
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What are the 4 shapes bacteria come in?
Rods, Curved rods, Spheres and Spirals
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How do bacteria reproduce?
Asexually in a process called binary fission
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What 4 different ways can diseases be spread?
In food (food poisoning), In water (Chloera), By airborne droplets(flu) and through contact (athletes foot)
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What is a virus made of?
It is made of a protein coat and a strand of genetic material inside
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What are the 4 stages in an infectious disease?
Firstly the microorganism enters the body, once it is in the body it reproduces rapidly, then the microorganisms produce toxins, finally the toxins cause the symptoms
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How can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
The DNA has a random mutation lead to changes in the bacteria's characteristics. This means that bacteria are less effected by antibiotics. This means that the bacteria can survive better, therefore reproduce more resistant bacteria.
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What did Louis Pasteur discover?
He dicovered that there was microbes in the air which cause disease and decay. he testeed it by boiling 2 broths but making sure bacteria could get in one of them and the open one went mouldly.
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What did Joseph Lister discover?
He discovered antiseptics. He found that many people survived operations but not sepsis(infections of wounds), he found that if he put carbolic acid on the ound and dresses them it killed bacteria and prevented sepsis.
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What did Alexander Flemming discover?
He discovered penicillin.This was when he was clearing out plates containing bacteria when he realized it wasn't growing in a around a piece of mould (penicillium notatum) was creating a substance that killed bacteria
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What is the word equation when yeast respires anaerobically?
Glucose > ethanol + carbon dioxide
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What is the word equation when yeast respires aerobically
Glucose + oxgyen >carbon dioxide +water
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How is beer made?
Barley grains germinate, where the starch is broken into sugar by enzymes (called malting). Then it is mashed up, sieved then hops are added to give it a bitter flavour. Afterwards yeast is added and the mixture is kept warm,the yeast creates alcohol
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How can you create a higher alcohol content?
You can distill it which takes out the water making it more concentrated therefore a higher alcohol content.
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How can energy be transferred from biomass? (2 different)
Burning fast growing trees to release heat or biomasss can be fermented by yeast and bacteria to create biogas which can be used as fuel.
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What are 3 advantages of biofuels?
They can be made in a sustainable way, overall it doesn't make any carbon dioxide as they use to be a plant and photosynthesis and It is a cleaner fuel as it doesn't produce particulates
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What are 2 disadvantages of biofuels?
Biogas doesn't contain as much energy as the same volume of natural gas and Large areas of land are cleared to create space to grow the crops
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What is Gasohol made from and what percentage of each is used?
10% ethanol and 90% petrol
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What country extensively uses gasohol and why?
Brazil becasue they grow plenty of sugar cane which is what ethanol is mad fom.
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Do sandy soils have a high air content, Why?
Yes because its made of large mineral particles, so they leave big gapsbetween them. It is also very permeable.
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Do clay soils have a high air content?
No, because they are made up of small particles which pack tightly together so there are no gaps.
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What are loam soils made up of?
A mixture of sand and clay particles.
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What is humus?
It is decomposed, dead organic matter.
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How can you work out how much humus is in the soil?
Take the mass to start with then heat the sample to 105°C and take the mass of it down. then heat the sample again to 550°C for 2 hours which burns all the humus away. Then take the second mass from the third to find the amount of humus in the sample
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What are the 4 advantages of living in water?
There is lots of water so you won't get it dehydrated, there is less variation in temperature, the water provides support and waste disposal is easier.
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What are the 2 disadvantages of living in water?
It uses more energy to move as there is mre resistant and aquatic animals have to be able to control the amount of water in there bodies
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How do amoebas regulate water content?
They collect water in a contractile vacuole that diffuses in by osmosis. the vacuole then moves to the cell membrane and contracts to empty the water outside the cell
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What do biological washing powders contain?
Enzymes which digest stains
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Do biological washing powders work best at high (100°C) or low temperatures (30°C)?
Low (30°C) becuase at high temperatures the enzymes denature and don't digest the stains
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How can you make low calorie food using an enzyme?
Sucrose is used in the home to sweeten food in the home. However if you break this down with Sucrase it breaks it down into simple sugars which are naturally sweeter so less is needed so there is less calories.
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What is immobilising enzymes?
It is when you keep them separate from the mixture so they don't contaminate the end product. this is usually done with alginate beads
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How can people with lactose intolerance have milk?
People who are lactose intolerant don't have the enzyme lactase to break down lactose. Some special milk is made by putting milk though immobilised lactase enzymes which turns it into glucose and glactose which can be absorbed.
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What are the 5 main steps in genetic engineering?
1. identify the gene your after 2.remove the gene 3.cut open the DNA of the organism you want to have the desired gene 4.insert the gene into the DNA of second organism 5. The organism is now transgenic and you can clone it.
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How do we make insulin on a large scale?
We have modified bacteria to make insulin which multiplies and makes it on a large scale.
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What is the process called when the DNA in DNA fingerprinting is separated out?
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Card 2


What are the 4 shapes bacteria come in?


Rods, Curved rods, Spheres and Spirals

Card 3


How do bacteria reproduce?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What 4 different ways can diseases be spread?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a virus made of?


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