Biology Paper 1

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state the limiting factors of photosynthesis
light-at night, temperature-in winter, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll
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what are the benefits of vaccinations?
epidemics can be prevented if a large percentage of the population is vaccinated. vaccinations have also controlled diseases which were once common
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what is a benign tumor?
when the tumour grows until there is no more room. stays in one place. does not invade other tissues. not cancerous & not usually dangerous
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what is a nucleus?
section of a cell that contains genetic material which controls the activities of the cell
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what are eukaryotic cells?
complex and include all animal and plant cells
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cons of vaccinations
they dont always work (immunity). sometimes cause a bad reaction
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what are Eukaryotes?
organisms that are made up of eukaryotic cells.
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what is a malignant tumour?
where the tumour grows and spreads to naighbouring healthy tissue. cells can break off and spread to other parts of the body by travelling in the bloodstream. malignant cells invade healthy tissues elsewhere in body and form secondary tumours.cancer
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what do vaccinations do?
protect individuals from future infections by injecting small amounts of dead or inactive pathogens that carry antogens so body produces antibodies to attack.
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what are prokaryotic cells?
small cells such as bacteria
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what are ribosomes?
section of cell where ribosomes are made
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what is a prokaryote?
a single-celled organism
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what happens after you are vaccinated?
white blood cells can rapidly mass produce antibodies to kill off the pathogen
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what is the cell membrane?
holds the cell together and controlls what goes in and out
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what is cytoplasm?
gel like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen it contains enzymes that contrl these chemical reactions
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what do bacterial cells have?
cell membrane, cell wall and cytoplasm. single circular strand of dna. plasmids.
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photosynthesis word equation?
carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen
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magnification formula
image size / real size
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what is differentiation?
process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job.
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examples of specialised cells?
sperm cells-reproduction, nerve cells-rapid signalling, muscle cells-contraction, root hair cells-absorbing minerals and water.
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what are chromosomes?
coiled up lengths of dna molecules. they carry large number of genes-which control characterisitics
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how many pairs of chromosomes are then in a human cell
23 pairs = 46 chromosomes. half from mother and half from father.
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what is diffusion?
the spreading out of particles from a high concentration to an area of lower concentration
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what is osmosis?
the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentraton
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what is a partially permeable membrane?
a membrane with very small holes in it which small molecules can go through.
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what is a catalyst?
a substance which increases the rate of a reaction without being changed or used up int he raction
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what is tissue?
a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. they can include more than one type of cell.
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what are the benefits of vaccinations?

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epidemics can be prevented if a large percentage of the population is vaccinated. vaccinations have also controlled diseases which were once common

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what is a benign tumor?

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Card 4

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what is a nucleus?

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what are eukaryotic cells?

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