Biology OCR, B3

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What is a species?
a group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring
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What increases a species chance of survival?
adaption of living organisms to their environment
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What are living organisms dependent on for survival?
their environment and other species
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What is interdependence?
all living organisms are dependent on each other
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What can cause a species to become extinct?
the environmental conditions change beyond it's ability to adapt, a new species that is a competitor or predator, disease, another species in it's food web becomes extinct
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What are all organisms ultimately dependent on?
energy from the sun
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In photosynthesis, where is the plant's energy from the sun stored?
in the chemicals which make up the plant's cells
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When is energy transferred between organisms in an ecosystem?
when organisms are eaten, when organisms and waste materials are fed on by decay organisms (detritivores)
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What is the equation for energy efficiency?
%of energy transferred = (input energy/output energy) x100
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What limits the length of a food chain?
energy passing out at each stage via heat, waste and uneaten parts of the organism
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How is nitrogen recycled through the environment? ( the nitrogen cycle )
nitrogen fixation forms nitrogen compounds (nitrates), nitrogen compounds converted to protein in plants and animals, excretion and death of plants and animals release nitrates into soil, plants uptake nitrates, denitrification
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Why are microorganisms important in the carbon cycle?
they decompose organic material and release the carbon
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How can environmental changes be measured?
using metres to measure levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrates and temperature. Using living organisms as indicators
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When did life on Earth begin?
approximately 3500 million years ago
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What is variation?
differences between individuals of the same species
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What is genetic variation a result of?
changes that occur in genes (mutations)
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What is the process of natural selection?
individuals show variation, there is competition for food and mates, the better adapted survive and reproduce. The survivors then pass on their genes to their offspring resulting in an improved organism
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What is selective breeding?
when animals with certain traits are mated to produce offspring with the desirable characteristic. (artificial)
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What combined can produce new species in the process of evolution?
mutations, environmental changes, natural selection and isolation
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What evidence is there for evolution?
fossil records and analysis of similarities/differences in the DNA of organisms
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What was Lamarck's theory?
evolution was caused by a force in the environment that forced organisms to change to suit the environment
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What was Darwin's theory?
theory of evolution by natural selection
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How are organisms classified?
into groups according to similarities and differences in characteristics, including: physical features and DNA
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What can the classification of fossils help with?
make sense of the enormous diversity of organisms on Earth, show the evolutionary relationships between organisms
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What is biodiversity?
the range of species in an environment
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Why is the rate of extinction increasing?
human activity, reducing biodiversity and reducing sustainability
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What is sustainability?
meeting the needs of people today without damaging the Earth for future generations
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What increases a species chance of survival?

Back

adaption of living organisms to their environment

Card 3

Front

What are living organisms dependent on for survival?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is interdependence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can cause a species to become extinct?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Krishy Wishy

Excuse me,

The 2nd flashcard I think should be "adaptation" instead of "adaption".

Kind regards,

Krishy Wishy

/Lucas/Austin/

Great cards! Really good info. (however, my revision book is next to me and is telling me that this is B2, not B3...you may want to double check your accuracy on this minor part.)

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