Biology module 4

Define disease
A condition which impairs the normal functioning of an organism
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Define pathogen
A microorganism which can cause disease
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What are the four types of pathogen?
Bacteria, viruses, fungi and protoctista
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Define communicable disease
A disease which can spread through organisms
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What are the three bacterial diseases?
TB, bacterial meningitis, ring rot
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What are the three fungal diseases?
Black Sigatoka, ringworm, athletes foot
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What are the two protoctista diseases?
Potato blight, malaria
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What are the three viral disease?
HIV, influenza, tobacco mosaic virus
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What organisms does TB affect?
Animals, typically human and cattle
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What organisms does bacterial meningitis affect?
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What organisms does ring rot affect?
Potatoes and tomatoes
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What organisms does HIV affect?
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What organisms does influenza affect?
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What organisms does tobacco mosaic virus affect?
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What organisms does black Sigatoka affect?
Banana plants
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What organisms does ringworm affect?
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What organisms does athletes foot affect?
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What organisms does potato blight affect?
Potatoes and tomatoes
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What organisms does malaria affect?
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What is direct transmission?
When a disease is transmitted directly from one organism to each other
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What are the several ways direct transmission can happen?
Droplet infection, sexual intercourse, touching
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What is indirect transmission ?
When a disease is transmitted from one organism to another via an intermediate
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What are examples of an intermediate?
Air, water, food or a vector
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How does overcrowding affect disease transmission?
Increases direct contact by droplet infection and can spread indirectly as it will remain in the air
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How does climate affect disease transmission?
For fungi easier to spread in wet patches because they need water to spread. Malaria reproduces best in humid hot places so more vectors
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How does social factors increase transmission of disease?
Risk of HIV in places where there’s limited access to good healthcare and good health education
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What are the primary non specific defences to prevent disease?
Skin, mucous membranes, blood clotting, inflammation, wound repair and expulsive reflexes
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How does the skin protect against infection?
Acts as a physical barrier and chemical barrier by producing anitmicrobial chemicals
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How do mucus membranes protect against infection?
By trapping pathogens and contains anti microbial enzymes
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How does blood clotting protect against infection?
Plug wounds to prevent pathogen entry and blood loss
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How does inflammation protect against infection?
Increasing the permeability of blood vessels to leak fluid to trap pathogens, also causes vasodilation which increases blood flow to infected area bringing white blood cells to the infected area
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How does wound repair act as protection to infection?
To repair and protect against pathogen entry
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How do expulsive reflexes protect against infection?
Expel foreign objects from the body
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What are plants physical defences against pathogens?
Waxy cuticle, have cell walls, produce callose between cell wall and plasma membrane making it harder for pathogens to enter
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What are a plants chemical defences against pathogens?
Produce anti microbial chemicals to kill or inhibit growth of pathogens, also produce chemicals which are toxic to insects to prevent feeding
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What activates the immune response?
Foreign antigens on surface of cells
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What two cells does the specific immune response use?
T and B lymphocytes
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What is the first stage in the immune response?
Phagocytes engulf the pathogen
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How do the phagocytes engulf and break down the pathogen?
They recognise the antigens and the cytoplasm moves around the pathogen to engulf it forming a phagosome, a lysosome then binds with phagosome to break down pathogen
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What is the function of opsonins?
They tag the pathogen so phagocytes can get closer to them
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What does a phagocyte which has engulfed the pathogen turn into?
An antigen presenting cell
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What is the name of the first white blood cell to respond?
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What stimulates the response of neutrophils?
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What is the second stage of the immune response?
Phagocytes activate t lymphocytes
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How do phagocytes activate t lymphocytes?
The receptors bind to antigens presented by APCs, activating clonal selection and then clonal expansion dividing to produce clones of itself
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What do t helper cells do ?
Release substances to activate B lymphocytes and t killer cells
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What do t killer cells so?
They attach to and kill cells that are infected with a virus
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What do t regulatory cells do?
Suppress the immune response from other white blood cells to stop the immune system cells attacking the hosts body cells
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What is the third stage of the immune response?
T lymphocytes activate b lymphocytes which divide into plasma cells
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How do b lymphocytes help the immune response?
The antibodies presented on the outside of them bind to antigens forming an antigen antibody complex activating the b lymphocyte to divide into plasma cells and memory cells
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what are b lymphocytes an example of?
Clonal expansion
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What do interleukins do?
Bind to receptors on b lymphocytes to activate them
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What is the fourth stage of the immune response?
Plasma cells make more antibodies to a specific antigen
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What is the function of a plasma cell and how do they do that ?
They are clones of b lymphocytes which secrete loads of antibodies into the blood
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What is the variable region the the antibody?
They’re the antigen binding site, shape of the variable region is complementary to a particular antigen
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What is the hinge region of an antibody?
It is the bit where the antibody branches into two and they allow flexibility when the antibody binds to the antigen
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What is the constant region of the antibody?
Allows binding to receptors of immune system cells at the bottom of the antigen
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What are the two sides of an antibody held together by?
A disulfide bridge
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How do antibodies help to clear infection?
They aggulate pathogens clumping them together, neutralise toxins, prevent the pathogen binding to human cells
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What is it called when a pathogen enters the body the first time?
Primary response
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Why is the person more ill from the primary response that secondary?
Because there aren’t many b lymphocytes that can make the antibody
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Why does someone show symptoms of a disease?
Because the body has to produce the antibodies
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What are memory t lymphocytes?
They remember the specific antigen and will recognise it for a second time
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Why is the secondary response faster?
Clonal selection happens faster
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Why does someone normally not show any symptoms with the secondary response?
Because the pathogen is gone before you show any symptoms
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What is natural active immunity?
When you become immune after catching a disease and have therefore developed the antibodies
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What is active artificial immunity?
When you become immune from a disease after being given the vaccine
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What is natural passive immunity?
When the baby becomes immune due tot the antibodies it receives from the mother
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What is artificial passive immunity?
When you become immune after being injected with antibodies from someone else
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What are the differences between active and passive immunity?
A- requires exposure to antigen, P- no exposure; A- takes a while for protection to develop, P- immediate; A- long term protection, P- short term; A- memory cells are produced, P- memory cells aren’t produced
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What is an autoimmune disease?
When an organism can’t recognise self antigens meaning theyre attacked like foreign antigens
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What are two examples of autoimmune disease?
Lupus, rheumatoid arthiritus
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What is lupus?
When the immune system attacks connective tissues, causing pain and inflammation, it can affect things such as skin, joints, heart and lungs
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What is rheumatoid arthiritus?
Immune system attacking joints causing pain and inflammation
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How do vaccines not produce many symptoms?
Because they contain antigens which make the body produce memory cells against a pathogen. Without causing disease
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How do vaccines help to control diseases and prevent epidemics?
If people in a community are vaccinated it makes the disease extremely rare so people who haven’t been vaccinated are unlikely to get the disease - herd immunity
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Why are booster vaccines given?
To make sure memory cells are produced
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What is immunisation?
Is the process by which you develop immunity
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Define vaccination
Administration of antigens
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What routine vaccines are offered to everybody?
MMR vaccine and Meningitis C
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Why do vaccines have to be changed?
Because the antigens on the surface of the influenza virus change regularly forming new strains of the virus
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Why are antibiotics useful?
They can target bacterial cells without damaging human body cells
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Define antibiotic
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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What are antibiotics used for?
Drugs to treat bacterial infections
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What process causes antibiotic resistance?
Genetic mutations
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How is antibiotic resistance passed on through a generation ?
Because of natural selection where the resistant strain isn’t killed
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What increases the risk of genetic resistance?
Not taking a full corse of antibiotics or taking antibiotics unnecessarily
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What are two examples of antibiotic resistance?
MRSA- causing serious wound infections Closttridium difficile- infects digestive system causing diarrhoea, fever and cramps
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Why is it important to protect the biodiversity of the planet?
To make sure we can study more organisms for possible cures for drugs
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How are doctors looking at using your genes for medicine?
People have personalised medicine by tailoring them to an individuals DNA
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What is synthetic biology?
When you use technology to design and make artificial proteins, cells and microorganisms
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How is synthetic biology being used?
They’re looking at bacteria to destroy cancer cells while leaving healthy body cells intact
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Define biodiversity
The variety of living organisms in an area
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Define species
A group of similar organisms able to reproduce to give fertile offspring
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Define habitat
The area inhabited by a species
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What are examples of biotic factors?
Availability of food or presence of predators
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What are the different levels biodiversity can be considered at?
Habitat diversity, species diversity, genetic diversity
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What is habitat diversity?
The number of different habitats in the area
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What is species diversity?
The number of different species in the abundance of each species in an area
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What is genetic diversity?
The variation of alleles within a species
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How can you use sampling be used to measure biodiversity?
1)chose an area to sample 2)count no of individuals in each species 3)repeat process and take many samples 4)estimate total number of individuals
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How should you carry out random sampling?
Split the area into a grid with coordinates to then use a random number generator to select coordinates
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What are the three types of non random sampling?
Systematic, opportunistic, stratified
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What is systematic sampling?
When samples are taken at fixed intervals, often along a line eg, quadrats and transects
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What is opportunistic sampling?
When samples are chosen by the investigators but data will be biased
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What is stratified sampling?
When different areas in a habitat are identified and sampled separately in proportion to their part of the habitat as a whole
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Define species richness
The number of different species in an area
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Define species evenness
Is a measure of the relative abundance of each species in an area
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What does it mean if there’s a great species richness?
There a high number of species in an area
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What des it mean if there’s a high species richness?
The population size of each species is a similar size
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What is simpsons index of diversity law used to measure?
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What does n and N stand for in the simpsons index of diversity formula?
N= total number of organisms in all species, n=total number of individuals of one species
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What is the value of simpsons index of diversity always between?
0 and 1
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Why is it important to assess genetic diversity?
So they can monitor the genetic diversity so efforts can be made to increase the genetic diversity of the population if needed
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What is genetic polymorphism used to do?
Measure genetic diversity
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What is polymorphism ?
It describes a locus that has two or more alleles
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define pathogen


A microorganism which can cause disease

Card 3


What are the four types of pathogen?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define communicable disease


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the three bacterial diseases?


Preview of the front of card 5
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