Biology Key Word Definitions (G-H)

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What is a gamete?
A sex cell which has half the chromosome number of an ordinary cell.
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What is gaseous exchange?
The exchange of gases, e.g. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which occurs between the air in the lungs and the blood.
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What is a gene?
A short section of DNA carrying genetic information.
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What is a genetic disorder?
Disease which is inherited.
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What is genetic engineering/modification?
A technique for changing the genetic information of a cell.
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What is genetic material?
The DNA which carries the instructions for making a new cell or a new individual.
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What is geographical isolation?
This is when two populations become physically isolated by a geographical feature.
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What is glandular tissue?
The tissue which makes up the glands and secretes chemicals, e.g. enzymes, hormones.
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What is global warming?
Warming of the Earth due to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trapping infrared radiation from the surface.
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What is glucose?
A simple sugar.
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What is glycerol?
Building block of lipids.
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What is glycogen?
Carbohydrate store in animals, including the muscles, liver and brain of the human body.
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What is gravitropism?
The response of a plant to the force of gravity controlled by auxin.
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What is greenhouse effect?
The trapping of infrared radiation from the Sun as a result of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, in the Earth's atmosphere. The greenhouse effect maintains the surface of the Earth at a temperature suitable for life.
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What is greenhouse gas?
Gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, which absorb infrared radiated from the Earth, and result in warming up the atmosphere.
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What are guard cells?
The cells which surround stomata in the leaves of plants and control their opening and closing.
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What is haemoglobin?
The red pigment which carries oxygen around the body.
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What s the heart?
The muscular organ which pumps blood around the body.
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What is herbicide?
Chemicals that kill plants.
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What is a herbivore?
An animal that feeds on plants.
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What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of constant internal body conditions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is gaseous exchange?

Back

The exchange of gases, e.g. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which occurs between the air in the lungs and the blood.

Card 3

Front

What is a gene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a genetic disorder?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is genetic engineering/modification?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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