Biology - Diet and Exercise
- What is require to keep a body healthy?
- What is metabolic rate?
- What are the consequences of not enough food?
- What are the consequences of too much food?
- Regular exercise and a balanced diet
- The rate at which cells release energy from food.
- Become thin and suffer from health problems eg irregular periods, reduced resistance to infection, deficiency diseases.
- Become fat or obese, suffer health problems such as diabetes, artheritis, high BP, heart disease.
Key Words. Balanced diet, carbohydrates, fats, poteins, malnorished, metabolic rate, brown fat.
Biology - Cholesterol
- What is cholesterol?
- The bloodstream transports cholesterol around the body attached to what?
- The combination of cholesterol and proteins is called what?
- What are the two types of lipoproteins?
- Which lipoprotein is also called ' good cholesterol' and why?
- A soft waxy substance found in the blood
- LDL and HDL
- HDL it removes and cleans up fatty deposits in the arteries and prevents heart disease.
Biology - Salt
- Too much salt can lead to what?
- What is recommended salt intake?
- Why do many people exceed recommended intake?
- High blood pressure
- Because manufacturers add salt to processed food.
Key words. Heart disease, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, LDL, HDL, Blood pressure.
Biology - Drugs
- What do drugs do?
- What are medical drugs?
- What are recreational drugs?
- What are illegal drugs?
- Substances that change chemical reactions in the body.
- Drugs that releive disease and illness that have been extensively tested before being used.
- Taken by people that like the effects they have on their bodies but they are addictive.
- Drugs that are highly addictive and harmful that are against the law.
Biology Nicotene and alcohol
- What effect does alcohol have on the body?
- What effect does nicotene have on the body?
- Alcohol is a depressant, it slows down signals to the brain. Small amounts help people to relax but exessive amounts causes people to lose self control. Long-term effects are damage to liver and brain and alcohol is addictive.
- Highly addictive. Cigarette smoke attaches to haemoglobin which reduces the amount of oxygen carried round the body. Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens that lead to cancers. Smokers are at risk of developing lung cancer, mouth an throat cancers and emphysema.
Key Words Liver, slow reactions, dependency, lung disease, mucus, emphysema, haemoglobin, heart attacks.
Biology - Drug testing
- Why are medical drugs regulated and tested?
- What can happen if testing does not take place?
- What is a placebo?
- To check that they are effective and safe for use and to check that there are no adverse side effects.
- Thalidomide was prescribed as a sleeping pill in the 50's and 60's. It was not tested properly and was found to damage the development of unborn babies. This led to the birth of deformed children and the drug was banned.
- A pacebo is a fake drug used in trialling so that the patient does not invent the possible effects.
Biology - Fighting Infection and Disease
- What are pathogens?
- What does bacteria release and what do viruses destroy?
- What can ingest and destroy pathogens?
- Examples of diseases caused by bacteria?
- Examples of diseases caused by viruses?
- What are the two groups of white blood cells called?
- How does vaccination work?
- Do antibiotics work against bacteria?
- Do antibiotics work against viruses?
- Pathogens are micro-organisms that cause disease.
- Bacteria release toxins viruses destroy cells
- White blood cells - the bodys natural defence.
- Food poisioning, cholera, thyphoid, whooping cough
- Flu, colds, measles, mumps, rubella, aids
- Phagocytes, Lymphocytes
- Injects a weakened formed of pathogen into the body and stimulates white blood cells to produce antibodies.
Biology - Organisms in their environment
- How do animals adapt to their environment?
- What resources do animals compete for?
- What resources do plants compete for?
- How are polar bears well adapted for their environment?
- How are camels well adapted for their environment/
- Appearance, surface area, thickness/thinness of fur, size of feet.
- Food, water, space.
- Light, water, space, mineral salts.
- White fur for camourflage, thick layers of fat and fur for warmth, greasy coat sheds water, large furry feet to spread weight on ice.
- Large flat feet speads weight on sand, ability to go long time without water, two rows of eyelashes to keep sand out, thin fur.