Biology- DNA Discovery

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Who discovered the DNA structure?
Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, James Watson and Francis Crick
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What was the 1st stage of the discovery?
Franklin and Wilkins used x-rays to study DNA.
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What was the 2nd stage of the discovery?
The x-rays from Franklin and Wilkins allowed Watson and Crick to study the 3D structure of DNA.
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What is DNA?
DNA is genetic information found in chromosomes that are in the nucleus of most cells.
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What is the structure of DNA?
DNA has two strands joint together by a double helix. These are joint by bases: A, T, C and G that have weak hydrogen bonds. The backbone is made by sugars and phosphates.
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How is protein made?
Protein is made by amino acids joining together. Each amino acid is coded by the sequence of three bases.
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What is mRNA?
mRNA is a messenger. Ribosomes are needed in protein synthesis but they are in the cytoplasm and DNA is in the nucleus. Therefore the genetic code needed is taken from the DNA to the ribsomes via mRNA either transcription or translation
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What is Transcription?
Transcription is the first part of making a protein and takes place in the nucleus.
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How does Transcription work?
Firstly the DNA unzips to create two separate strands, one being used as a template for mRNA. Complementary bases then form to make the mRNA. C to G and U (as T is no longer present) to A
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What is Translation?
Translation is where the mRNA attaches to the ribosomes and the ribosomes read the mRNA.
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How does Translation work?
The ribosomes decode the mRNA in groups of 3 or condons (which are complementary bases for tRNA) The tRNA is specific to an amino acid which it returns to the mRNA. Amino acids then line up where bonds form leading to a polypeptide chain.
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What does the Polypeptide chain do?
The polypeptide chain then folds to a specific shape forming a protein.
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Card 2

Front

What was the 1st stage of the discovery?

Back

Franklin and Wilkins used x-rays to study DNA.

Card 3

Front

What was the 2nd stage of the discovery?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is DNA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the structure of DNA?

Back

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