Biology- Biodiversity (4.2)

Biodiversity
Measure of variation found in living world, genes organisms contain and ecosystems in which they take part.
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Genetic Biodiversity
Variation between individuals belonging to the same species eg. dog breeds.
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Random Sampling
Randomly selected sample sites eg. number generator. + Non-biased. - May be unrepresentative (not covering all areas equally).
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Opportunistic Sampling
Make decisions on where to sample based on prior knowledge/ during process. + Easier and quicker. - May be biased.
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Stratified Sampling
Dividing a habitat into areas that appear different, and sample each area. +
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Systematic Sampling
Samples taken at fixed intervals across habitat eg. transect. + Useful when habitat shows clear gradient in some environmental factor. - Other species not in line transect may be missed= underestimate of biodiversity.
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Quadrat
Square frame, random number generator= coordinates. Calculate percentage cover as measure of abundance. Can divide into smaller squares or use point frame (needles). - Easy to bias readings by non-randomly placing quadrat. - Point frame can give 300%
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Interupted Belt Transect and Continuous Belt Transect
IBT- take samples/ quadrat at set intervals. CBT- quadrat taken continuously- can study belt in detail.
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Sweep Netting
Sweep stout net through vegetation to collect invertebrae, can empty onto white sheet to count.
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Pooter
Sucks invertebrae into jar before fly away.
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Pitfall Trap
Container buried in soil so fall in.
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Tullgreen Funnel
Collecting small animals from leaf litter. Move away from light at top and fall into beaker.
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Longworth Trap
Humane trap, doesn't harm. Must be monitored to release. Use mark and recapture technique (C1 x C2) / C3.
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Species Richness
Measure of how many different species are present. - Ignores no. individuals in each species.
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Species Evenness
Measure of how evenly represented species are (abundance of individuals in each species).
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Simpson's Index of Biodiversity
Takes into account species richness and evenness. 1- (n/N)2
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What is the effect of a high value of Simpson's Index of Biodiversity?
A high value shows that the habitat is very diverse. This means that a small change (eg. disease/ predator) that may affect are species has little effect.
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Genetic Diversity
More than one allele for a particular locus (position of gene on a chromosome). Can be estimated by calculating no. loci in one heterozygous individual. Can also be estimated by calculating percentage of loci in population have more than 1 allele.
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Factors Affecting Biodiversity
Human population growth (destroy ecosystems for food and pollution). Agriculture (monoculture/ selective breeding and destroying habitats reduces genetic diversity). Climate change (less able to adapt so slowly migrate). Extinction rapidly increasing
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Reasons to Maintain Biodiversity- Ecological
Interdependence- decline of species affects other species. Keystone species- one with disproportionate effect upon environment relative to its abundance. Genetic resource- potential medicines.
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Reasons to Maintain Biodiversity- Economic
Food production- soil depletion (loss of soil fertility caused by removal of minerals by continuous cropping of monocultures).
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Reasons to Maintain Biodiversity- Aesthetic
Joy/ wellbeing- patients recover faster. Flooding/ drought.
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Conservation In Situ
Normal Habitat. Legislation (country prevents hunting...). International laws. Wildlife reserves. National Parks. National Nature Reserves. Sites of Specific Scientific Interest. Marine conservation zones.
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Evaluation of Conservation In Situ
+ Natural environment. Permanently protects biodiversity and representativeness. Allows management so ecological integrity is maintained. Facilitates research. - Conditions for extinction may still be present. May be too late.
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Conservation Ex Situ
Outside normal habitat. Zoos (breed and carry out research). + Protection from poaching/predation. Monitor health, medical assistance. - Disease exposure., Limited genetic diversity. Botanical Gardens/ Seed Banks. + Seeds easy to collect. - Asexual.
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CITES
Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species ensures trade doesn't threaten survival of endangered species. - Hard to enforce.
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Rio Convention on Biological Diversity
Promote sustainable development, with focus on people and sources of food, medicines, fresh air, water and shelter.
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Countryside Stewardship Scheme
Aim to enhance natural beauty and diversity of countryside.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Genetic Biodiversity

Back

Variation between individuals belonging to the same species eg. dog breeds.

Card 3

Front

Random Sampling

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Opportunistic Sampling

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Stratified Sampling

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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