Biology B3 (OCR Gateway)

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Where does respiration occur?
The mitochondria
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What does respiration provide energy for?
Life processes
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What are ribosomes?
Cell structures which are too small to see with a light microscope
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Where are ribosomes located?
The cytoplasm
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What happens in the ribosomes?
Protein synthesis (making of proteins)
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What are chromosomes in the nucleus made of?
DNA
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What is the role of chromosomes?
To carry coded information in the form of genes
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What are the complementary base pairings?
A to T, C to G
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Why is each gene different?
Contain a different sequence of bases
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What are amino acids coded for by?
A sequence of 3 bases
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What does one gene code for?
A particular protein
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What does the genetic code control?
Cell activity and so affects characteristics of the organism
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Give three examples of proteins.
Collagen, insulin, haemoglobin
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What are proteins made of?
Long chains of amino acids
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Name four functions of proteins.
Structural (collagen), hormones (insulin), carrier molecules (haemoglobin) and enzymes
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts which speed up chemical reactions in living cells: respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis
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What is an active site?
The place in an enzyme that substrate molecules fit into when a reaction takes place
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What is denaturing?
An irreversible change that changes the shape of the active site and inhibits enzyme function
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What is the equation for Q10?
Q10= rate at higher temperature/ rate at lower temperature
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What are mutations?
Changes to genes that may lead to the production of different proteins
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How do mutations occur?
Spontaneously but can be made to occurr more often by radiation or chemicals
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Why can mutations be a problem?
Often harmful but may be beneficial or have no effect
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How are the functions of a cell determined?
Some genes are switched off in any one cell
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What is the energy provided by respiration needed for?
All life processes in plants and animals (eg muscle contraction, protein synthesis, control of body temperature in mammals)
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water
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What is the symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O
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What does respiration produce?
ATP
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What is ATP used as?
The energy source for many processes in a cell
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What is the equation for respiratory quotient?
Carbon dioxide produced/ oxygen used
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What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose ---> lactic acid
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What happens during anaerobic respiration?
Lactic acid accumulates in muscles causing pain and fatigue
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Why is anaerobic respiration not as good as aerobic respiration?
Releases much less energy per glucose molecule
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What is a diploid cell?
Having two copies of each chromosome- found in mammals
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How are most new body cells produced?
Mitosis
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What is mitosis needed for?
Growth, replacement of cells, repair of tissues and asexual reproduction
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What happens prior to mitosis?
DNA replication
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What does DNA replication involve?
'Unzipping' DNA to form single strands; forming new double strands by complementary base pairing
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What happens in mitosis?
Chromosomes line up along centre of the cel, then they divide and the copies move to opposite poles of the cell
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What happens in sexual reproduction?
Gametes join in fertilisation
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How many chromosomes do gametes have?
Half the number of body cells
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How are gametes produced?
Meiosis
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What is a haploid cell?
Contains one chromosome from each pair (gametes)
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How does sexual reproduction produce a unique individual?
Half the genes come from each parent
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How is oxyhaemoglobin formed?
Haemoglobin in red blood cells reacts with oxygen in the lungs
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What is the role of oxyhaemoglobin?
Releases oxygen in tisues to form haemoglobin
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How does blood move around the body?
Arteries, veins and capillaries
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What do arteries do?
Transport blood away from the heart
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What do veins do?
Transport blood to the heart
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What do capillaries do?
Exchange materials with tissues
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Which blood vessel is under the highest pressure?
Arteries
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What is a double circulatory system?
One where blood travels through the heart twice in a complete circuit
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Where does the right side of the heart pump blood to?
The lungs
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Where does the left side of the heart pump blood to?
The body
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Which part of the heart pumps blood?
The ventricles
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Which parts of the heart prevent backflow?
Semilunar, bicuspid and tricuspid valves
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What do vacuoles in plants contain?
Cell sap and provide support
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What is the plant cell wall made of?
Cellulose and provides support
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What do bacterial cells lack?
A 'true' nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts
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What is growth measured as?
An increase in height, wet mass or dry mass
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Why is wet mass less accurate?
Due to the variable water content
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What is growth?
Cell division followed by cells becoming specialised
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What is differentiation?
The process of cells becoming specialised
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What are stem cells?
Undifferentiated cells that can develop into different cells, tissues and organs
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What is a feature of many plants?
Continuous growth
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What are meristems?
Areas tha plant cell division is mainly restricted to
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How do plants gain height?
Through cell enlargement
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What do plants cells retain the ability to do?
Differentiate
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Name one problem with selective breeding.
Can lead to inbreeding, which can cause health problems within the species
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What is genetic engineering/ genetic modification?
Where selected genes are transferred to another organism
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What is the term for a modified organism?
Transgenic
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What is an advantage of genetic engineering?
Organisms with the desired features are produced rapidly
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What is a risk of genetic engineering?
Inserted genes may have unexpected harmful effects
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What is gene therapy?
Changing a person's genes in an attempt to cure disorders
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What cells could gene therapy involve?
Body cells or gametes
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What is cloning an example of?
Asexual reproduction
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What does cloning produce?
Genetically identical copies
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Why was Dolly the sheep significant?
The first mammal cloned from an adult by nuclear transfer from an udder cell
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What are identical twins?
Naturally occurring clones
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How are plants cloned?
Grown from cuttings or tissue culture
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Why are plants easier to clone than animals?
Many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate unlike animal cells which lose this ability at an early stage
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does respiration provide energy for?

Back

Life processes

Card 3

Front

What are ribosomes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where are ribosomes located?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens in the ribosomes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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