Biology B1

HideShow resource information
What is blood pressure measured in?
Millimeters of mercury or MMHG
1 of 100
What are the two measurments of blood pressure, and what do they measure?
Systolic pressure which measures the maximum pressure the heart produces, and Diastolic, which measures the pressure inbetween heartbeats.
2 of 100
Name factors that can cause blood pressure to increase
Stress, increased alcohol intake, smoking and being overweight
3 of 100
Name factors that can cause blood pressure to decrease
regular exercise, and a balanced diet
4 of 100
How can blood pressure cause a stroke?
High blood pressure causes blood vessels to burst which can lead to damage to the brain and/or kidneys
5 of 100
What is fitness?
The ability to do a physical activity
6 of 100
What is health?
Being free from disease caused by bacteria and viruses.
7 of 100
How can your general level of fitness be measured?
Your cardiovascular efficiency
8 of 100
What types of activities can fitness be meaured through?
Strength, agility, flexibility, speed, stamina
9 of 100
How does smoking increase blood pressure?
The carbon monoxide combines with the haemoglobin in the blood, which means less oxygen can be carried because it can' combine with the haemoglobin, so the heart rate has to increase.
10 of 100
What is heart disease caused by?
Restricted blood flow to the heart muscle caused by plaques such as cholestrol in the coronary arteries, restricting blood flow.
11 of 100
What increases the risk of heart disease?
high levels of saturated fats in the diet, which leads to a build up of cholestrol, and high levels of salt.
12 of 100
What are the three main food groups, and what are they made of?
Proteins which are made up of chains of amino acids, carbohydrates which are made from simple sugars like glucose, and fats which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol.
13 of 100
What factors can affect what a balanced diet is?
Age, gender, activity levels, religion, being vegetarian or vegan, or because of food allergies.
14 of 100
What happens when you eat too many fatty, or carb rich foods?
They get stored in the body
15 of 100
Where are fats and carbs stored?
fats are stored around organs as adipose tissue, or under the skin, nd carbs are stored in the liver as glycogen.
16 of 100
Why do we need protein?
For growth
17 of 100
How do you work out the EAR for protein?
EAR IN g= 0.6 x body mass in KG
18 of 100
What can affect your EAR?
Body mass, age, being pregnant or breastfeeding.
19 of 100
What is the equation for BMI
BMI=Mass in KG / height in M SQAURED
20 of 100
What is malaria caused by?
A protozoan called plasmodium, which feeds on red blood cells
21 of 100
What is a parasite?
An organism that feeds on another livng organism, causing it harm
22 of 100
How can we help to stop the spread of malaria?
Draining stagnant water, putting oil on the waters surface, and spraying insecticide
23 of 100
How does the body protect itself from antigens?
by producing antibodies
24 of 100
How do antibodies work?
By locking on to the antigens on a pathogens surface
25 of 100
What produces antibodies?
White blood cells
26 of 100
Ho do vaccinations work?
By injecting antibodies from another human or animal
27 of 100
What is active immunity?
When the body produces its own antibodies
28 of 100
What is passive immunity?
When the body recieves antibodies through the form of anitbiotics or other medications
29 of 100
Why can it take so long to recover from an illness?
Becaue each disease causing pathogen, has its own anitbody
30 of 100
How does immunisation work?
By injecting a weakend or harmless version of a pathogen into a person, so it triggers a response so the bod can remember how to fight it next time
31 of 100
Name one disadvantage of immunisation
It carries a risk of contracting the disease itself
32 of 100
Name one advantage of immunisation
It will decrease the risk of the disease spreading
33 of 100
What do antibiotics fight?
Bacteria and fungi
34 of 100
What do antiviral drugs fight?
viruses
35 of 100
How do antibiotics work?
They destroy the pathogens
36 of 100
How do antiviral drugs work?
They slow the development of the pathogen
37 of 100
How are new treatments tested?
computer models, human tissue samples, animals, and on medical trials.
38 of 100
What is a placebo?
A harmless pill
39 of 100
What happens to light rays in the eye?
They are refracted by the cornea and the lens
40 of 100
What makes us sensitive to colour?
Light receptors in the retina
41 of 100
What is binocular vision?
Where the eye placement helps organsims to judge distance. (humans for example)
42 of 100
What is accomadation of the eye?
When the lens changes shape so the eye can focuse on onjects at different distances
43 of 100
Name two things that can reduce the chances of SOME cancers
Lifestyle and diet
44 of 100
What makes cancer cells different to benign cells?
Benign cells divide slowly and are harmless, wheras cancerous cells display uncontrolable growth
45 of 100
What is a pathogen?
A disease causing organism
46 of 100
How to pathogens create symptoms?
By releasing toxic waste called toxins, or by damaging cells
47 of 100
How does the eye focus on distant objects?
The cilary muscles relax, and the suspensory ligaments tighten
48 of 100
How does the eye focus on close objects?
The cilary muscles tighten, and the suspensory ligaments relax
49 of 100
How is long sight caused?
The eyeball is too short or the lens is too thin.
50 of 100
How is short sight caused?
The eyeball is too long, or the lens is too long
51 of 100
What lens is used to correct long sight?
Convex
52 of 100
What lens is used to correct short sight?
Concave
53 of 100
What are nerve cells called?
Neurones
54 of 100
What do nerve cells pass along?
The axon
55 of 100
What are the links for a reflex arc?
Stimulus - receptor - sensory neurone - central nervous system - motor neurone - effector - response
56 of 100
What are the links for a spinal reflex?
receptor - sensory neurone - relay neurone - motor neurone - effector
57 of 100
How are neurones adapted?
They are long, have branched endings, and have an insulator sheath
58 of 100
What is the most dangerous class of drugs?
Class A
59 of 100
What is the least dangerous class of drugs?
Class C
60 of 100
Name the 5 types of drugs
Depressants, stimulants, performance enhancers, hallucinogens, painkillers
61 of 100
How do depressants work?
They block the transmission of nerve impulses across synapses
62 of 100
What is alcoholic content measured in?
Units
63 of 100
Why does alcohol increase the risk of an accident?
Because it increases reaction times
64 of 100
What organ is damaged by alcohol?
The liver
65 of 100
What is homeostasis?
Keeping a constant intenal enviroment
66 of 100
What does homeostasis involve?
balancing bodily input and output
67 of 100
What do you keep constant in homeostasis?
Water, carbon dioxide, and temperature
68 of 100
What do negative feedback systems do?
They cancel out any change, such as an increase in temperature
69 of 100
What can high temperatures do to your body?
Give you heatstroke or dehydration
70 of 100
How does the body avoid overheating?
The body sweats, which increases the transfer of heat
71 of 100
What gland is the blood temperature measured by?
The hypothalamus gland in the brain
72 of 100
What systems control our reactions to temperature?
Our hormonal system and nervous system
73 of 100
What do these systems trigger?
vascodilation, or vascoconstriction
74 of 100
What is vascoconstriction?
The constriction of small blood vessels under the skin
75 of 100
What is vascodilation?
The dilation of small blood vessels under the skin
76 of 100
What hormone controls blood sugar levels?
insulin
77 of 100
Why are hormonal reactions slower that nervous system reactions?
Because hormonal reactions are carried in the blood
78 of 100
What is type 1 diabetes?
Where no insulin is being produced at all.
79 of 100
What is type 2 diabetes?
Where not enough insulin is being produced, or the body is not reacting to it
80 of 100
How can type 1 be managed?
By insulin injections
81 of 100
How can type 2 be managed?
Through diet
82 of 100
What is phototropism?
A plant's reaction to light
83 of 100
What is geotropism?
A plant's reaction to gravity.
84 of 100
How do shoots react?
positivly phototropic, negatively geotropic
85 of 100
How do roots react?
Negatively phototropic, positivley geotropic
86 of 100
What are the commercial usesof plant hormones?
Selective weedkillers, rooting powder, delay or accelerate the ripening of fruit, to control dormancy of seeds
87 of 100
What is an allele?
A different version of a gene
88 of 100
How do dominant and recessive characteristics work?
If one or two dominant alleles are expressed, then that allele will be expressed, but if no dominant alleles are present, the recessive allele(s) will be expressed
89 of 100
How many pairs of chromosones do humans have?
23 pairs
90 of 100
What sex chromosones do women have?
**
91 of 100
What sex chromosones do men have
xy
92 of 100
What letter do eggs carry?
x only
93 of 100
What letter do sperm carry?
x OR y
94 of 100
What is genetic variation caused by?
Mutations, or rearrangment of genes
95 of 100
Homozygous means...?
identical alleles
96 of 100
Heterozygous mans...?
different alleles
97 of 100
Geneoype is...?
your genetic makeup
98 of 100
Phenotype is...?
The alleles that are expressed
99 of 100
What are inherited disorders caused by?
faulty alleles
100 of 100

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the two measurments of blood pressure, and what do they measure?

Back

Systolic pressure which measures the maximum pressure the heart produces, and Diastolic, which measures the pressure inbetween heartbeats.

Card 3

Front

Name factors that can cause blood pressure to increase

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name factors that can cause blood pressure to decrease

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can blood pressure cause a stroke?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all WHOLE OF B1 resources »