Biology - A level cells viruses and reproduction of living things

What is the structure of lysosomes?
1. They contain digestive enzymes 2. Lysosomes appear as dark spherical bodies in the cytoplasm
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What is the function of lysosomes?
Used to digest food particles (by fusing with a vacuole containing food) or obsolete organelles
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What is the structure of a nucleus?
It contains nucleic acids (DNA&mRNA) and associated proteins 2. The nucleus contains the chromosomes which code for the proteins produced by the cell
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What is the function of a nucleus?
1. When in interphase the DNA and proteins form granular 'chromatin'
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What is the structure of a nucleolus?
A dense area of the nucleus comprising of DNA and protein
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What is the function of a nucleolus?
It is involved in the production of ribosomes and also plays a part in cell growth and division
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What is the structure of a plasma membrane?
Primarily consists of phospholipids forming a bilayer but also contains proteins, glycoproteins & cholesterol
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What is the function of a plasma membrane?
Controls which substances enter and leave the cell
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What is the structure of a mitochondria?
Has a double membrane, with inner membrane infolding to form CHRISTAE. 1. It contains own ribosomes and circular DNA.
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What is the function of a mitochondria?
Involved in aerobic respiration.
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What is the structure of a centriole?
1. Occur in pairs (known as CENTROSOME) 2. Each centriole consists of 9 tubules.
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What is the function of a centriole?
The centrioles form the spindle of microtubules during cell division
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What is the structure of a Golgi Body?
1. Some proteins have carbohydrates added to form glycoproteins 2. Some vesicles form the golgi body, contain digestive enzymes for secretion or are kept within a vesicle and form a lysosome
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What is the function of a Golgi body?
1. Involved in the modification and transport of proteins 2. Producing materials for insect cuticles and plant cell walls
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What is the structure of a ribosome?
Found attached to outer surface of the RER and also found free in the cytoplasm
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What is the function of a ribosome?
Sites of protein synthesis
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What is the structure of a rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Made of a series of flattened sac called cisternae, which provide a large surface area for protein synthesis to occur.
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What is the function of a rough endoplasmic reticulum?
1. Isolates and transports protein synthesized by ribosomes 2. Proteins are transported from RER to the golgi body in vesicles before secretion
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What is the structure of a smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Cisternae are tubular in structure
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What is the function of a smooth endomplasmic reticulum?
Involved in the synthesis and transport of steroids and lipids
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What is the structure of microtubules?
1. Protein tubes made of tubulin protein subunits 2. Approx. 20mm in diameter
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What is the function of microtubules?
Part of the cytoskeleton, are involved in maintenance of cell structure and transport within cells of vacuoles and organelles
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What is the structure of cytoplasm?
Jelly-like liquid that fills the body of the cell and contains organelles
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What is the function of cytoplasm?
Chemical reactions can occur here.
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What is the structure of a cell wall?
Consists of cellulose micro fibrils and other polysaccharides
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What is the function of a cell wall?
Provides mechanical support and protection and also prevents the cell from bursting.
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What is the structure of a vacuole?
A sac bound by a single membrane called the tonoplast. It contains cell sap which is a solution of mineral salts, pigments and organic acids.
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What is the function of a vacuole?
It stores waster products and other substances. It can change in volume and affect the turgidity of the cell.
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What is the structure of a chloroplast?
1. Surrounded by 2 membranes - 2. Contains fluid called stroma which has a system of membranes running through it - 3. The membranes are stacked in places from grana containing chlorophyll-4. Stroma contains ribsosomes, starch grains and circular DNA
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What is the function of a chloroplast?
1. Photosynthesis takes place here - 2. Pigments capture energy from sunlight and transfer it to chemical bonds
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Card 2

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What is the function of lysosomes?

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Used to digest food particles (by fusing with a vacuole containing food) or obsolete organelles

Card 3

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What is the structure of a nucleus?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is the function of a nucleus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the structure of a nucleolus?

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