Biology 4.1 and 4.2 - THINGS I KEEP FORGETTING

The prostate gland is an accessory gland. Its secretions are alkaline. Why?
1. Maintain sperm mobility. 2. Provide nutrients to the sperm, such as fructose, amino acids and zinc ions. 3. Neutralise acidity of the urethra. 4. Neutralise acidity of the vaginal tract.
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How long is the average sperm?
63 micrometres.
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The production of gametes in the sex organs.
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The production of sperm in the seminiferous tubules.
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Leydig cells are also called...
Interstitial cells.
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What does hCG stand for?
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.
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Why does the corpus luteum need to be maintained for the first 16 weeks of pregnancy?
It secretes progesterone that maintains the endometrium, which contributes to the structure of the placenta.
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What hormones does the placenta secrete?
hCG (originally secreted by the blastocyst following implantation), progesterone and oestrogen.
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Function of oestrogen during pregnancy?
1. To inhibit the secretion of LH, FSH and prolactin. 2. To stimulate the growth of the uterus. 3. To stimulate the growth and development of mammary glands. 4. To increase their blood supply.
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What is the plural for lacuna (intervillous spaces)?
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The umbilical artery carries...
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How is the chorion formed?
Trophoblast cells from the blastocyst form the chorion.
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Give the measurements of a placenta.
22cm long, 2cm thick and weighs roughly 500g.
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Five functions of the placenta?
1. Endocrine organ. 2. Allows for the exchange of materials between the maternal and foetal blood. 3. Passive immunity. 4. Protection from the mother's circulation. 5. Protection from the mother's immune response.
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How long is the umbilical cord?
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What is the amnion derived from?
The inner cell mass of the blastocyst.
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The amniotic fluid is a solution that consists of...
Urea, salts, some protein and little sugar. IT IS MAINLY WATER.
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Importance of the amniotic fluid?
1. Maintains the foetus' body temperature. 2. Provides lubrication. 3. Contributes to lung development. 4. Allows movement so muscles and bones function before birth. 5. Acts as a shock absorb to protect the foetus from injury.
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Oxytocin is secreted by the...
Posterier pituitary gland.
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Prolactin is secreted by the...
Anterior pituitary gland (hint: prolactin contains an A, oxytocin does not).
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How do you spell LH?
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Three layers of the uterine wall?
Outer layer - Perimetrium. Muscle layer - Myometrium. Innermost layer - Endometrium.
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Which hormones are secreted by the pituitary glands?
FSH, LH and prolactin are secreted by the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. Oestrogen is secreted by the POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
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Which hormones are secreted by the ovaries?
Oestrogen and progesterone.
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Flowering plants are called...
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The flower of a plant is the reproductive structure. This is where...
Meiosis takes places, producing haploid spores that contain the gametes. Male spores = pollen grains produced in the anther. Female spores= embryo sacs produced in the ovule of the ovary.
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Inside the sepals of a plant there is a ring of petals called the...
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Which type of cell division directly forms the male and female gametes in flowering plants?
MITOSIS, not meiosis.
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What is dehiscence?
The opening of the anther to release mature pollen grains.
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Explain the important functions of the tapetum, the layer of cells that surrounds the pollen sacs.
1. Provide nutrients and regulatory molecules to the developing pollen grains. 2. Has a role in the development of the pollen cell wall. 3. Resists desiccation. 4. Prevents UV light from entering the pollen sac.
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What are the male gametes?
The two nuclei produced when the generative nucleus undergoes MITOSIS.
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What is the female gamete?
Haploid oosphere produced from the remaining haploid megaspore.
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The nucellus is a layer of cells that...
Provides nutrients.
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The ovule consists of...
The outer integuments, which surrounds the nucellus, which in turn surrounds the embryo sac containing the 7 nuclei.
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Self pollination leads to...
Self fertilisation, which results in inbreeding.
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Cross pollination leads to...
Cross fertilisation, which results in outbreeding.
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Outbreeding is of evolutionary significance because...
Some genomes are more successful than others, so it may allow a species to survive in a changing environment.
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What is dichogamy?
When the stamens and stigmas ripen at different times to ensure cross pollination. There are two types: PROTANDRY, where the stamens ripen first, and PROTOGYNY, where the stigmas ripen first.
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What is fertilisation?
The fusion of a male and female gamete to produce a zygote.
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The fruit develops from the...
Ovary wall.
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The seed develops from the...
Fertilised ovule.
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The outer integuments form the...
Testa of the seed: it dries out, hardens and becomes waterproof.
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'Non-endospermic' seed.
The endosperm has been absorbed into the cotyledon of the seed.
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'Endospermic' seed.
The endosperm remains a separate food store for the embryo.
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Why is maize (monocot) a one-seeded fruit?
The ovary wall and testa of a monocotyledon fuse.
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Card 2


How long is the average sperm?


63 micrometres.

Card 3




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Card 4




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Card 5


Leydig cells are also called...


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