Biological psychology

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What happens within the sympathomedullary pathways?
The sympathetic pathway is activated by immediate, acute stressors. the sympathetic nervous system then prepars the body for flight or fight.
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How does the sympathetic nervous system prepare the body for fight or flight?
by the release of noradrenaline, which activates internal body organs associated with fight or flight.
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What happens when the body is being prepared for flight or fight?
increased pupil size-better vision. increased heart rate-better flow to skeletal muscles. Glycogen(liver) is converted to glucose for energy. adrenal medulla releases adrenaline. sweat glands produce sweat. Bronchial tubes in lungs dilate for intake.
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What happens in the adrenal medulla in the second part of the sympathomedullary pathway response to stress?
neurons of the SNS travel to the medulla, causing the release of adrenaline into the blood stream which boosts the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and suppresses non-emergency bodily processes, like digestion.
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What happens once the acute stressor passes?
the parasympathetic branch of the ANS slows heartbeat down again and reduces blood pressure, restoring the body to its normal state.
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What happens within the pituitary-adrenal system?
When chronic stressors are perceived by the brain, a message is sent to activate the hypothalamus, this then produces corticotrophin-releasing factor into the bloodstream.
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what happens when corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) arrives at the pituitary gland?
The CRF causes it to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). this is then transferred to the adreanal via the bloodstream, specifically to the adrenal cortex .
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What happens when the adrenal cortex is activated?
the adrenal cortex releases the hormone cortisol.
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What can cortisol do to the body?
positive-lower sensitivity to pain. negative-lowered immune response.
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What can prolonged release of ACTH do?
it causes the adrenal cortex to increase in size to produce more cortisol.
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What is the ANS?
Autonomic nervous system.
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What is the SNS?
sympathetic nervous system
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What is CRF?
corticotrophin-releasing factor
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What is ACTH?
adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
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How can cardiovascular problems be a consequence of the stress response?
if the stress responses are repeatedly activated, the heart and blood vessels begin to suffer from adnormal wear and tear. increased blood pressure due to the SNS can lead to physical damage of ling of blood vessels and chances of heart disease
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How can immunosuppression be a consequence of the stress response?
too much cortisol suppresses the immune system, shutting down the process of fighting infection, thus may causing the feedback system to break down under prolonged stress.
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What is the feedback system relating to immunosuppression?
triggered by high levels of cortisol causes a reduction of CRF and ACTH levels, thus bringing cortisol levels back to normal.
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How can stress lead to cardiovascular disorders?
SNS activation leads to constriction of blood vessels (vasoconstriction) and a rise in blood pressure and heart rate which may wear away the lining of blood vessels.
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what can cause atherosclerosis? (disease causes by deposition of fatty material in the arteries)
increased levels of glucose in the bloodstream caused by stress.
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What did Kiecolt-Glaser et al. do when researching stress related illness and the immune system?
the assesed imune system functioning of medical students one month before and exam and then during the examination period itself. this was achieved by taking blood samples.
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What did Kiecolt-Glaser et al. find when researching stress related illness and the immune system?
immune system activity was signigicantly reduced from a blood sample taken during the examination period compared to one taken the month before.
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What did Rahe et al. do is their research into life changes as stressors?
usign the SRE questionnaire given to 2664 men abroad three US navy ships. this measured the life events experienced over the previous six months. during their six month tour of duty a record was kept of any illness.
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What did Rahe et al. find is their research into life changes as stressors?
small significant correlation between men's life change units and their illnes over the same period.
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What did Bouteyre et al. do in their research into daily hassels as stressors?
analysis of the relationship between daily hassles and mental in students undergoing the initial transistion from school to university. the student completed a hassles questionnaire and a depression inventory/
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What did Bouteyre et al. find in their research into daily hassels as stressors?
found that 40% of the new students suffered from depressive symptoms and there was a positive correlation between scores on the hassles scale and the incidence of depressive symptoms.
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what are the four evaluation points of life changes as stressors?
-a spurious relationship. -individual differences. -life changes and daily hassles. -real world application.
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What is the spurious relationship evaluation point in life changes?
most studies have yielded only correlational data, failing to demonstrate a casual relationship between life events and stress-related illness. it is possible that a third variable affects both.
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what is the individual difference evaluation point in life changes?
the impact of different life chances like pregnancy, retirement and even minor events can vary across different people. what may be a stressful life change may be an exciting one for another. the life change can effect each person differently.
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What is the life changes and daily hassles evaluation point for life changes?
Major life changes are relatively rare in most peoples life, so relatively minor daily hassles are more likely to be a significant source of stress.
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What is the real-life application evaluation point for life changes?
experiences of life changes such as financial troubles, physical illness and unemployment have been found to predict the likely hood of suicide
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What is the amplitude effect concerning daily hassles?
chronic stress caused by negative life events may deplete a persons resources, making them more vulnerable to the influence of daily hassles
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What is the accumulation effect concerning daily hassles?
there is an accumulation of minor daily stressors which creates persistent irritations, frustrations and overloads. this then results in more serious stress reactions, such as anxiety and depression.
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What are the three daily hassles evaluation points?
memory problems, real-world application and pets as daily hassles.
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What is the memory problems evaluation point for daily hassles?
most research into daily hassles includes recalling experiences over previous months. the accuracy of such recall tends to vary according to the time interval. can be prevented by a diary method
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what is the real-life application evaluation point for daily hassles?
when unresolved hassles from the day were carried forward, events such as the behaviour of other road users is more likely to be interpreted negatively by a stressed driver.
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what is the pets as daily hassles evaluation point for daily hassles?
Miller found that that, for femals pets were associated with uplifts, however, for men they were associated with hassles.
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Card 2

Front

How does the sympathetic nervous system prepare the body for fight or flight?

Back

by the release of noradrenaline, which activates internal body organs associated with fight or flight.

Card 3

Front

What happens when the body is being prepared for flight or fight?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens in the adrenal medulla in the second part of the sympathomedullary pathway response to stress?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens once the acute stressor passes?

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