Biodiversity & Evolution

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SPECIES
A group of individual organisms very similar in appearance, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and genetics, whose members are able to interbreed freely to produce fertile offspring.
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HABITAT
The place where an organism lives
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BIODIVERSITY
The number and variety of living things to be found in the world, in an ecosystem or in a habitat.
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RANDOM SAMPLING
Studying a small part of the habitat and assuming it contains a representative set of species that can be applied to the whole habitat. The sample sites must be chosen at random.
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SPECIES RICHNESS
Is the number of species present in a habitat
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SIMPSON'S DIVERSITY INDEX
A formula used to measure the diversity of a habitat
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ECOSYSTEM
All the living organisms and all the non-living components in a specific area, and their interactions.
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ABUNDANCE
the frequency of occurrence of organisms in a sampled area, such as quadrat.
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QUANTITATIVE
A study that involves quantity (numbers). e.g. counting the number of individuals of a species in a selected area.
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QUALITATIVE
A study that does not involve numbers. e.g. simple observations to see if a particular species lives in a selected area.
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QUADRAT
A square frame used for sampling in field work.
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TRANSECT
A line through a habitat used to take samples and help study the habitat.
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SPECIES EVENESS
A measure of the relative abundance of individuals in each species
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TAXONOMY
the study of the principles of classification
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PHYLOGENY
the study of evolutionary relationships between organisms.
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EVOLUTION
A gradual process by which present diversity of organisms have arose from simple primitive species 4000 million years ago. new species have arisen by natural selection
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EVOLUTIONARY DISTANCE
a measure of how far apart 2 organisms are on the evolutionary scale. closely related species will be a shorted distance apart.
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VARIATION
the differences between individuals
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CLASSIFICATION
the organisation of living organisms into groups according to their shared similarities
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CLASS
taxonomic group used in classification. Members of the same class share some characteristics. Within each class are orders consisting of Families, Genera and Species. Similar classes are grouped into a Phylum
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PROKARYOTES (PROKARYOTAE)
an organism with cells that do not contain a true nucleus
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PROTOCTISTS ( PROTOCTISTA)
Are all eurkaryotes, they are mostly single celled organisms, few are multicellular e.g. algae
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FUNGI
Are eurkaryotic organisms that are mostly Saprophytic. they consist of a Mycelium with walls made of polysaccharide - chitin.
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MYCELIUM
network of numerous strands called hyphae that make up the body of a fungus.
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PLANTS (PLANTAE)
Multicellular eurakryotes that gain their nutrition from photosynthesis
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ANIMALS (ANIMALIA)
Heterotrophic multicellular eurkaryotes
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BINOMIAL SYSTEM
uses 2 names to identify each species. 1. The Genus 2. Species name
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DICHOTOMOUS KEY
uses a series of questions with 2 answers to help identify a specimen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The place where an organism lives

Back

HABITAT

Card 3

Front

The number and variety of living things to be found in the world, in an ecosystem or in a habitat.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Studying a small part of the habitat and assuming it contains a representative set of species that can be applied to the whole habitat. The sample sites must be chosen at random.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Is the number of species present in a habitat

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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