BIO: brain and brain dysfunction

What are examples of functional brain dysfunction?
autism, OCD, major depression
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What are examples of structural brain dysfunction?
stroke, dementia, traumatic. brain injury
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what is the cerebral cortex's role? what does it lead to in terms of autism?
the neurones of it carry out movement, sensation, planning for the future and social behaviour. Altered structure and connectivity may lead to changes in these activities in individuals with autism.
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what is the amygdala? how is it related to anxiety and autism?
the amygdala is the danger detector of the brain and may be responsible for the anxiety that is common in autism. Amygdala often too large in children with autism, but smaller in adults.
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what is the hippocampus? how is it related to autism?
the hippocampus makes memories. It's bigger in many people with autism, this may be associated with the intense behavioural therapy that many people experience during early life.
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what is the temporal lobe?
important for language, hearing and seeing. 1 part of the temporal love called the fusiform gyrus allows people to detect differences in the faces of individuals, indicated that this part of brain has altered neurons ands connections
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what is the glia? how is it linked to autism?
beside neurones, there are other cells in the brain called glia, these provide support to neurons and also contribute to immune function, some types of glial cells are also active in autism
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what is the cerebellum? how is it linked to autism?
the neurons in it control detailed movements of the body. about half of the people with autism have a smaller number of a specific type of cell called purkinje cells in the cerebellum
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what are examples of non traumatic brain injury?
anoxia, infections, strokes, tumour, metabolic disorders
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what are the two types of traumatic brain injury?
open brain injury and closed brain injury
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what is open brain injury? examples?
penetrating injuries i.e assaults, falls, accidents, abuse and surgery
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what is closed brain injury? examples?
internal pressure and shearing i.e assaults, falls, accidents and abuse
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what are movement disorders?
Parkinson's disease, Huntingdon's disease
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how many people suffer from strokes in UK pear year? what are it's longterm symptoms?
150,000 people (1 every 5 mins), hemiplegia = paralysis on one side, language impairment, executive dysfunction (disinhibition)
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what is the most common type of stroke and least common?
most common = ischemic (80%), least common = haemorrhagic (20%)
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what are the different types of ischmeic stroke and what is it?
loss of blood through vessel blockage, thrombotic (60%) and embolic (20%)
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what is a thrombotic stroke?
blood clot formed within blood vessel, often builds up around atherosclerosis
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what is embolic stroke?
clot formed outside blood vessel and travels the brain and becomes lodged, could be cholesterol build ups (arteriosclerosis) coming from neck blood vessels and travel to brain
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what is a haemorrhagic stroke?
bleed from artery into brain, blood builds up inside skull and compresses brain tissue, some loss of blood flow can be possible too
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what is ACA and what does it affect?
type of ischemic stroke, can affect some medial parts of pre/post central gyrus, sensory/motor loss, executive dysfunction
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what is MCA and what does it affect?
type of chronic ischemic stroke, tend to affect pre-central (motor) and post-central gyrus (sensory) on one side, lead to semi-paralysis and loss of sensation on one side, left hemisphere MCA stroke affects language
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what is PCA and what does it affect?
type of ischemic stroke, may affect vision/bllndness,object recognition problems, memory problems
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what is acute ischemic stroke treatment?
special clot busting drugs, must be done early within -34 hours, reduces extent of stroke
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what is chronic ischemic stroke treatment?
therapy for physical disabilities, therapy for language/cognitive difficulties, adaption to body/cognitive limitations, some natural recovery especially in young people
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what are two types of assessments for strokes?
functional assessment measure (FAM) and functional independence measure (FIM)
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What is a haemorrhagic stroke?
build up of pressure within skull leading to brain compression, brain soft and high blood pressure can squish, interferes with normal cell function due to abnormal blood
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what is the treatment for a haemorrghaic stroke?
aneurysm clip
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what is dopamine?
a neurotransmitter
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what is autism a result of?
functional and structural dysfunction of the brain
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will a stroke progress as it is a traumatic brain injury?
yes potentially
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is alzheimers a form of non traumatic brain injury? why?
yes, because it happens over time
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what is alzheimers a sub category of?
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why do we have two hemispheres?
to share overall functionality
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what is terminal brain injury?
external force to the head causes brain damage, expected to become 3rd leading cause of mortality in 2020
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what is a closed head injury in terms of TBI?
Often happen as a result of rapid acceleration or deceleration, nerve fibres stretched and torn which can result in diffuse brain damage
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what procedures/operations can be carried out following a TBI?
section opened in skull to reduce pressure and holes drilled to reduce pressure of blood or other liquids
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what can brain tumours arise from?
can arise from glial cells (glioma) or the protective layer of meninges (meningioma)
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what symptoms can come with brain tumours?
if the cortex is involved then seizures are common
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what is dementia?
an acquired persistent impairment of intellectual function with compromise in memory and at least two other cognitive domains such as language, visa-spatial skills, social, occupational or executive function
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examples of neurodegenerative disorders? non degenerative?
degenerate = ralzheimers disease and pick's disease, non degenerate = vascular dementia, toxins, infection and alcohol
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what is a hypo-kinetic movement disorder? explain.
parkinsons - partial or complete loss of muscle movement due to disruption in basal ganglia, experience muscle rigidity and na inability to produce movement.
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what is a hyperkinetic movement disorder? explain.
huntington's disease - characterised by frenetic energy or activity; it is hyperactive
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when does parkinsons usually develop? overt how many years? how many people are affected?
usually Strats at 40-70 years old, progresses over 10-20 years, 0.3% population suffer
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in parkinsons sufferers what effect does this have on dopamine production?
it decreases
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when does Huntington's usually develop? over how long? how is it transmitted?
develops around 40 years old, over 10-15 years, genetically transmitted so children 50% likely to suffer with it
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what are the symptoms of Huntington's disease?
behavioural changes ie depression, abnormal movements (list below), dementia
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what are the abnormal movements associated with huntingtons?
1) chorea = involuntary movements of face, neck and limbs 2) athetosis = slow, writhing movements confined to the limbs
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explain how the basal glangia is affected by huntingtons?
marked loss of neurons in basal ganglia, loss of neural connections between motor cortex and basal ganglia that control movement, neurons of basal ganglia die but dopamine pathway stays intact
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what is the work of a neuropsychologist?
work with neurological patients, do assessments, assist neurologists in making diagnosis, provide rehabilitation
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what is the work of a neuropsychiatrist?
medical education not Phd, treat neurological diseases, treat physicatric disorders
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are all forms of dementia progressive?
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is dopamine important in all forms of dementia?
only some
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what is dopamine mostly produced by? what is dopamine not relevant to?
subsrntia nigra and ventral segmented area, not relevant to the sensory network
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why do the brains of vegetative patients have less connectivity?
as the brains are not capable of keeping the connections
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who is Michael Schumacher?
suffered a brain injury
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is parkinsons disease faster or slower than huntingsons disease?
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is parkinsons disease a form of dementia? huntingsons disease?
parkinsons is not a form of dementia, huntinsons is
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can a concussion damage the brain?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are examples of structural brain dysfunction?


stroke, dementia, traumatic. brain injury

Card 3


what is the cerebral cortex's role? what does it lead to in terms of autism?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is the amygdala? how is it related to anxiety and autism?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is the hippocampus? how is it related to autism?


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