Benzene and its reactions

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What is an electrophile?
an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron rich centre, where it accepts a new pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Does benzene have an electron rich/electron dense area. If so, where?
Yes, the electron cloud above and below the plane of the molecule.
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Why does benzene take part in substitution reactions instead of addition reactions?
To preserve its stability.
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What forms when you heat benzene with nitric acid?
Nitrobenzene
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What are the conditions and reagents for a mono-nitration of benzene?
heat at 50 degrees
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What colour is nitrobenzene in liquid form?
Yellow
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What is nitrobenzene a starting material of?
Pesticides, pharaceuticals (e.g. parcetamol), dyes
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What can form when you do a nitration of methyl benzene with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid?
2, 4, 6-trinitromethylbenzene
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What is the abbreviated name for 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene?
TNT
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What is TNT?
An explosive
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What is needed for halogenation of benzene to take place?
A halogen carrier
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Give an example of a halogen carrier
AlCl3/AlBr3/FeCl3/FeBr3 (Iron metal can also be used as it reacts with present halide ions to form iron(iii) halide)
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What reaction takes place during halogenation of benzene?
Electrophilic substitution
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What are the conditions for benzene's reaction with chlorine?
Room temperature, normal pressure, halogen carrier present
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What is the product formed when benzene reacts with bromine?
Bromobenzene
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What is chlorobenzene used for?
Solvents, production of pesticides
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What is bromobenzene used for?
Preparation of pharmaceuticals
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What happens in a substution reaction?
and atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom/group of atoms
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What is a reaction mechanism?
A series of steps that make up the overall reaction
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What does a curly arrow represent?
Movement of a pair of electrons during the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
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Why do electrophilic addition reactions take place in benzene?
Because there is a delocalised ring of electrons above and below the plane of the molecule that attracts electrophiles
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How does a halogen carrier work?
By attaching to a halogen, it helps make it a stronger electrophile, allowing it to have the strength to attack the stable benzene ring.
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Name a suitable catalyst that could be used for the chlorination of benzene.
AlCl3, FeCl3, or Fe
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How does bromine react with cyclohexane?
EAddReaction high electron density in double bond; electrons repel electron in the Br-Br; induces a dipole in Br-Br;now polar; double bond breaks; Br combines forming an intermediate; Br- is attracted to carbocation; attaches; 1,2-dibromocyclohexane.
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What would you see during the reaction between cyclohexane and bromine?
Colour change from orange to colourless
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What does PCB stand for?
Polychlorinate biphenyls
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What are PBCs?
A family of compounds made from chlorine, carbon and hydrogen
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Draw a molecule of 3, 4, 4'-triochlorophenyl
2 benzene rings. ring 1: 2 chlorines attached to separate carbons. ring 2: 1 chlorine attached to carbon 4
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What are some uses for PCBs?
Coolants and insulating fluids for transformers
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When were PCBs banned?
late 1970s
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Does benzene have an electron rich/electron dense area. If so, where?

Back

Yes, the electron cloud above and below the plane of the molecule.

Card 3

Front

Why does benzene take part in substitution reactions instead of addition reactions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What forms when you heat benzene with nitric acid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the conditions and reagents for a mono-nitration of benzene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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