Basic Neuroanatomy

  • Created by: Alex
  • Created on: 09-05-13 22:31
Whats the cytoskeleton
A microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence.
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Part of the cytoskeleton
Microfilaments, Neurofilaments/intermediate filaments, microtubules
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Function & structure of microfilaments
3-7nm Diam. polymer (built of) G-actin. Strands intertwine to form F-actin filaments. prevalent at edge of cell-cortex. generate cell movement by rapid assembly & dissasembly. Support, strengthen & shape cells
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Function and structure of Neurofilaments (intermediate filaments)
7-11nm Diam. Protein composition -cell type dependent. mechanical strenngth & stabalise cell - prevent excessive stretching from outside forces. stabalise & strengthen axon. organise internal structure. in only some animals.
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What are mutations of neurofilametns associated with
Neurodegenerative diseases
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Microtubules diameter
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structure of microtubules
long hollow unbranched tubes, primarily composed of tubulin (globular protein)
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Function of microtubules
position organelles in cytoplasm. maintain asymmetric cell shape(needed in e.g. nerves). coorinate complex cell movement. transport of secretory vesicles (highway for movement-ATP dirven) movement of speciaised cell projections-cilia and flagella
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Orthograde Axonal transport
Movement of organelles towards synaptic terminal from cell body. moved by kinesin
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Cellular components transported orthograde
fast - vesicles and organelles. slow - cytoskeleton and soluble enzymees
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Protein used for orthograde transport
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Motor protein. move along microtubule filaments, powered by hydrolysis of ATP. movement supports cellular functions including mitosis, meiosis & transport of cellular cargo, - axonal transport. kinesins walk to + end of microtubule, transporting carg
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Movement of organelles away from synaptic terminal towards cell body
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retrograde transport function
movement of trophic factors from neighboring cells to stroma - give information regarding the state of nerve terminal
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cellular components travel retorograde
fast - vesicles, organelles, & membranes. Some viruses and toxins also transported
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Protein used for retrograde transport
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converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement. Dynein transports various cellular cargo by "walking" along cytoskeletal microtubules towards the minus-end of the microtubule, which is towards the cell centre
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sustentacular tissue that surrounds and supports neurons in the central nervous system;
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Neuroglia types in CNS
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia & ependymal cells
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Neuroglia in PNS
Schwann and satellite cells
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Role of neuroglia
Support, insulate and protect neurons. glia to glia communication. Receptors for neurotransmission. connective tissue of CNS, Homeostatically maintain composition of extracellular environment
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Star shaped glial cells
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Role of Astrocytes
support & nourish neurones. regulate composition of CNS. guide neurones during development, glue of CNS-hold neurons together. repair of brain injuries & form neural scars. participate in formation of Blood,brain,barrier
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How astrocytes regulate composition of CNS
Remove excesse potassium ions - maintains normal excitability
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Blood brain barrier
a mechanism that creates a barrier between brain tissues and circulating blood; serves to protect the central nervous system
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How Blood brain barrier works
Astrocytes maintain tight junctions between endothelial cells in capillary walls. capillaries selectively permeable-prevent substances entering brain tissue. Not effective barrier for gases or fat-soluble substances. e.g. nicotine and anaesthetics
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small nonneural cells forming part of the supporting structure of the central nervous system. They are migratory and act as phagocytes to waste products of nerve tissue
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Microglia are specialised macrophages
phagocytic cells that ingest and digest cell debris and bacteria
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How microglia work
Respond to signals from neurons (important in response to disease or injury- multiply and move to infected area). remove debris and bacteria by phacocytosis. Release signalling molecule that mediate inflammation & then release growth factor
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Ependymal cells
epithelial-like cells that line the CSF-filled ventricles in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
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function of ependymal cells
help produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid that bathes brains and spinal cord. possibly also neuronal stem cells - might form glial cells and neurones
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type of Glial cell in CNS
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Function of olgiodendrocytes
envelop neurones in CNS - forming insulating mylein sheaths. -Electrical insulator. speed transmission of neural impulses
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Schwann Cell
any cell that covers the nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system and forms the myelin sheath.
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schwann cell function
outside CNS (so not glial). Form mylien sheath around axons in the PNS
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What's multiple sclerosis?
Neurological disease where patches of mylein deteriate at irregular inteverals along axons in the CNS & are replaced by scar tissue ontefering with conduction of neural impulses
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Symptons of multiple sclerosis
Fatigue, loss of coordination & balance, numbness, blurred vision & blindness& paralysis
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Three types of neurone
Unipolar, bipolar and multipolar
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Unipolar neurone
Long axon, cell body branches off side(in middle), dendrites at end of axon - afferent (sensory neurones)
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Bipolar neurone
specialized neuron observed to have only two processes present: the axon and a dendrite, arising from opposite poles of the cell body. - Retina
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Multipolar neurone
is a type of neuron that possesses a single (usually long) axon and many dendrites, allowing for the integration of a great deal of information from other neurons. In efferent (motor) nerurons and interneurones
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Afferent fibre classificaion
Classified dependent on diameter, conduction velocity and myelination. A and B are myelinated, C is non-mylenated
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Spinal cord
The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies within the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge( carries impulses to and from the brain, and serves as a center for initiating & coordinating many reflex act)
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Grey matter
Large masses of cell bodies, dendrites, unmyleinated neurones and glial cells
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White matter
myelinated axons arranged in bundles - tracts of pathways
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what's rexed laminae
a scheme used to classify the structure of the spinal cord based on the cytological features of neurones in different regions of grey substance
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somatomotor pathway
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Visceromotor pathway
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Number of nerves in the spinal cord
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Number of cervical nerves
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No. of thoraic nerves
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No. of lumbar nerves
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No. of sacral nerves
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No of coccygeal nerves
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where nerves exit corresponding vertebra
Exit from below for all except cervical nerves
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Head end of spinal cord known as
Rostal end
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Tail end of spinal cord known as
Caudal end
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Peripheral nerves (PNS)
The nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord - connects CNS to limbs and organs
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Structure of Peripheral nerves
axons wrapped in endonerium - connective tissue layers around azons. axons bundled together, axon bundles wrapped in perineurium(bundles of nerve fibres). Epineurim encloses bundles of nerves and blood vessels
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Division of PNS
into somatic and autonomic NS
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Nerves in the PNS
12 cranial nerves and 31 spinal nerves
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Cranial nerve
Each of twelve pairs of nerves that arise from the brain, not from the spinal cord, and pass through separate apertures in the skull
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Cranial nerve I
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Cranial nerve II
Optic (not part of PNS)
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Cranial nerve III
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Cranial nerve IV
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Cranial nerve V
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Cranial nerve VI
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Cranial nerve VII
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Cranial nerve VIII
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Cranial nerve IX
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Cranial nerve X
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Cranial nerve XI
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Cranial nerve XII
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Central Nervous System
The complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
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Protection of the CNS
boney outer casing - skull/veterbral column. membranes-meninges. hydraulic buffer - cerebrospinal fluid. foreign agents - blood-brain-barried
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Each of the series of small bones forming the backbone, having several projections for articulation and muscle attachment, and a hole through which the spinal cord passes
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How nerves enter and exit CNS
through formina in sjull of between spinal vertebrae
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what vertebrae does spinal cord finish at? `
1 or 2. roots continue to extend caudally(towards tail) before emerging through foramina
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The three membranes (dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater) that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord.
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Dura mater
The tough fibrous membrane covering the brain and the spinal cord and lining the inner surface of the skull. It is the outermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
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Dura mater properties (all)
strong & inelastic- prevents abrasion. Highly Vasculated & innervated.
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Dura mater in head
Double layered - joined except at sinuses. attatches to inside of skull. normally no epidural space between it and skull
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Dura mater in spinal cord
Not double-layered. Epidural space above containing venous plexus (congregation of multiple veins)
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Dura mater in subdural space
very thin and contains interstitial fluid
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subdural space
artificial space created by the separation of the arachnoid from the dura as the result of trauma or some ongoing pathologic process; in the healthy state, the arachnoid is tenuously attached to the dura and a naturally occurring subdural space is n
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Arachnoid mater
delicate fibrous membrane forming the middle of the three coverings of the central nervous system
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Properties of arachnoid mater
Loose fit, very vascular, delicate like spider webs - strands connect to pia mater & help support CNS, contains cerebral spinal fluid
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Pia mater
The delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord.
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Properties of pia mater
Thin layer of connective tissue. clings tightly to CNS. contains small plexus of blood vessels - ensure good 02 and nutrient supply to CNS
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Noun Inflammation of the meninges caused by viral or bacterial infection.
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Ventricular system (brain)
The ventricular system is a set of structures containing cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. It is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
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Cerebrospinal fluid
Clear watery fluid that fills the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater
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Properties of cerebrospinal fluid
shock absorber-cushions brain & spinal cord against mechanical injury. Medium more nutrient & waste exchange between blood & brain. inside ventricles & subarachnoid space. composed of glucose & various gases
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where is most of cerebrospinal fluid produced
70% by choroid plexus in walls & roots of ventrices
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Subarachnoid space
a space in the meninges beneath the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that contains the cerebrospinal fluid.
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Excessive CSF due to overproduction or block of drainage in circulatory system
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Symptoms of hydrocephalus
increase ventricular pressure on CNS, expansion of head in newborns. treated by inserting shunt that drains excess into neck vein
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